University of Oulu

Kinga Polaczek-Grelik, Agata Walencik-Łata, Katarzyna Szkliniarz, Jan Kisiel, Karol Jȩdrzejczak, Jacek Szabelski, Marcin Kasztelan, Jerzy Orzechowski, Przemysław Tokarski, Włodzimierz Marszał, Marika Przybylak, Jari Joutsenvaara, Hannah J. Puputti, Marko Holma, Timo Enqvist, Natural background radiation at Lab 2 of Callio Lab, Pyhäsalmi mine in Finland, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 969, 2020, 164015, ISSN 0168-9002,

Natural background radiation at Lab 2 of Callio Lab, Pyhäsalmi mine in Finland

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Author: Polaczek-Grelik, Kinga1,2; Walencik-Łata, Agata1; Szkliniarz, Katarzyna1;
Organizations: 1University of Silesia in Katowice, August Chełkowski Institute of Physics, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1, 41-500, Chorzow, Poland
2NU-Med Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Centre Katowice, Ceglana 35, 40-514 Katowice, Poland
3National Centre for Nuclear Research, 28 Pulku Strzelcow Kaniowskich 69, 90-001 Lodz, Poland
4University of Oulu, Kerttu Saalasti Institute Pajatie 5, 85500 Nivala, Finland
5Muon Solutions Oy, Rakkarinne 9, 96900 Saarenkylä, Finland
6Arctic Planetary Science Institute, Lihtaajantie 1 E 27, FI-44150 Äänekoski, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-04-27


In operating mines, as well as in deep locations for planned scientific activities, it is essential to recognize the natural background radiation from the point of view of both occupational hazard and experimental background. Callio Lab, located in the Pyhäsalmi Mine, Finland, is one of the underground laboratories participating in the Baltic Sea Underground Innovation Network (BSUIN). The characterization of the natural background radiation was done at the Lab 2, which is the deepest located in Callio Lab. It involved in-situ gamma spectrometry, thermal neutron flux measurements, radon concentration determination, and α / β laboratory spectrometry of water and rock samples. At a depth of 1436 m (~4000 m w.e.) within the felsic volcanic bedrock occurs a volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, wherein a thermal neutron flux of (1.73 ± 0.10) × 10−5 cm−2s−1, a gamma-ray flux of 12.7 ± 1.5 cm−2s−1, a gamma-ray dose of 0.158 ± 0.029 μ Sv/h and a radon concentration of 213.3 Bq/m³ ± 11% were determined.

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Series: Nuclear instruments & methods in physics research. Section A, Accelerators, spectrometers, detectors and associated equipment
ISSN: 0168-9002
ISSN-E: 1872-9576
ISSN-L: 0168-9002
Volume: 969
Article number: 164015
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2020.164015
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This study was performed under the Baltic Sea Underground Innovation Network (BSUIN) project, which is supported by the EU ’s Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme.
Copyright information: © 2020 Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license