University of Oulu

Väisänen, P., Usoskin, I., & Mursula, K. (2021). Quality survey of Neutron Monitor data sources for 1951-2019, 395, pp. 1-6. In Proceedings of 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference — PoS(ICRC2021). 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference. Sissa Medialab.

Quality survey of Neutron Monitor data sources for 1951-2019

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Author: Väisänen, Pauli1; Usoskin, Ilya1,2; Mursula, Kalevi1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, Oulu, Finland
2Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Tähteläntie 62, Sodankylä, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Sissa, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-12-01


Long-term measurements from the global neutron monitor (NM) network allow us to study galactic cosmic ray (GCR) variations for the last seven decades. However, the network offers data of quite different quality from several sources. Historically, NM data is distributed through different data repositories, which include the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB), World Data Center for Cosmic Rays (WDCCR), The Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN) repositories and individual homepages of stations/teams.

Here we present a detailed quality survey by comparing the consistency of hourly resolution NM datasets of different origin. The analysis includes 300 datasets from 147 NMs in 1951-2019. As the main result of the survey, we found that the data of individual stations are not often uniform across the different sources. This results in problems with the reliability and reproducibility of scientific results. Our survey also underlines that special efforts should be given to a proper documentation of the datasets. This is particularly true for the oldest data that are in danger of getting lost to time. We also offer a list of currently recommended data sources for each station, based on their comparison with a ``prime’’ dataset composed from long-lived NM stations that fulfil specific quality criteria.

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Series: POS. Proceedings of science
ISSN: 1824-8039
ISSN-E: 1824-8039
ISSN-L: 1824-8039
Volume: 395
Pages: 1 - 6
DOI: 10.22323/1.395.1244
Host publication: Proceedings of 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2021)
Type of Publication: B3 Article in conference proceedings
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (project No. 321882 ESPERA). We acknowledge all the stations teams and the three main repositories (NMDB, IZMIRAN and WDCCR) for their datasets.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © Copyright owned by the author(s) under the term of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.