University of Oulu

Koskela, U, Helve, O, Sarvikivi, E, et al. Multi-inflammatory syndrome and Kawasaki disease in children during the COVID-19 pandemic: A nationwide register-based study and time series analysis. Acta Paediatr. 2021; 110: 3063– 3068. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.16051

Multi-inflammatory syndrome and Kawasaki disease in children during the COVID-19 pandemic : a nationwide register-based study and time series analysis

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Author: Koskela, Ulla1,2,3; Helve, Otto4; Sarvikivi, Emmi4;
Organizations: 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
2PEDEGO Research Unit (Research Unit for Pediatrics, Dermatology, Clinical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Central Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Kokkola, Finland
4Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
5Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
6New Children’s Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
7Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
8Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2021120358731
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-12-03
Description:

Abstract

Aim: We investigated whether the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic was associated with the occurrence of Kawasaki disease or with multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).

Methods: This national Finnish register-based study was based on laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, MIS-C and Kawasaki disease cases. We performed a time series analysis on the occurrence of Kawasaki disease in 2016–2020.

Results: In 2020, there were 5170 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in children under 18 years of age and five fulfilled the MIS-C case definition. The occurrence of MIS-C was 0.97 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-2.26) laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in children. Our time series analysis showed that Kawasaki disease cases decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The seasonally adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.49 (95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.74) when it was compared to pre-pandemic levels. This coincided with a reduced occurrence of respiratory infections, due to social distancing in the population.

Conclusion: This nationwide register-based study found that MIS-C was a rare complication of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The occurrence of Kawasaki disease and respiratory infections decreased during the pandemic. This suggests that transmissible microbes may play an important role in Kawasaki disease and social distancing may have a protective effect.

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Series: Acta pædiatrica
ISSN: 0803-5253
ISSN-E: 1651-2227
ISSN-L: 0803-5253
Volume: 110
Issue: 11
Pages: 3063 - 3068
DOI: 10.1111/apa.16051
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1111/apa.16051
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Subjects:
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/