University of Oulu

Ristaniemi, J., Rajala, W., Karjalainen, T. et al. Eruption pattern of the maxillary canines: features of natural eruption seen in PTG at the late mixed stage—Part I. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 23, 223–232 (2022).

Eruption pattern of the maxillary canines: features of natural eruption seen in PTG at the late mixed stage—Part I

Saved in:
Author: Ristaniemi, J.1; Rajala, W.1; Karjalainen, T.1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Oral Development and Orthodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2021-12-08


Aim: To describe the variation of eruption pattern of maxillary canines in the late mixed stage of dentition seen in PTG when eruption was later natural.

Methods: Material for this longitudinal and retrospective register-based study consisted of 1454 PTGs of children living in Eastern Finland (mean age 9.3 years, SD 0.6). Natural eruption of a canine consisted of 744 PTGs (336 girls and 408 boys) including 1488 maxillary canines. The variables examined were treatment/natural eruption, overlapping, inclination, dental age, developmental stage of the canine and lateral incisor.

Results: Only 2.0% of maxillary canines had clear overlapping and 56.2% no overlapping was detected at the age of 8.5–10.5 years. Large inclination angle (≥ 25°) was found for 5.5% of examined canines. Overlapping of canine with lateral incisor root decreased as the development of canine root exceeded 1/3. Larger inclinations occurred at earlier stages but decreased significantly as the root developed from 1/3 to 1/2. Mean inclination was significantly larger at children with normal dental age and/or incomplete lateral incisors when overlapping occurred. Regardless overlapping mean inclination was larger if dental age was delayed and/or lateral incisors incomplete.

Conclusion: Some overlapping and larger inclination in maxillary canine are features of normal eruption pattern at an earlier stage of canine development and while lateral incisor is incomplete in PTG (8.5–10.5 years). In addition to the overlapping and inclination, stages of canine and lateral incisor root as well as dental age should be observed radiologically when evaluating erupting maxillary canine in children of this age.

see all

Series: European archives of paediatric dentistry
ISSN: 1818-6300
ISSN-E: 1996-9805
ISSN-L: 1818-6300
Volume: 23
Pages: 223 - 232
DOI: 10.1007/s40368-021-00650-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. This study was supported by grants from the Finnish Dental Society Apollonia.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit