University of Oulu

Elli Leppänen, Jarkko Etula, Peter Engelhardt, Sami Sainio, Hua Jiang, Björn Mikladal, Antti Peltonen, Ilkka Varjos, Tomi Laurila, Rapid industrial scale synthesis of robust carbon nanotube network electrodes for electroanalysis, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Volume 896, 2021, 115255, ISSN 1572-6657,

Rapid industrial scale synthesis of robust carbon nanotube network electrodes for electroanalysis

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Author: Leppänen, Elli1; Etula, Jarkko2; Engelhardt, Peter3;
Organizations: 1Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, 00076 Aalto, Finland
2Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, PO Box 16200, 00076 Aalto, Finland
3Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, PO Box 15100, 00076 Aalto, Finland
4Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
5Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, PO Box 4500, 90570 Oulu, Finland
6Canatu Oy, Tiilenlyöjänkuja 9, 01720 Vantaa, Finland
7Aalto-NanoFab, Micronova, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, 00076 Aalto, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-12-08


Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been extensively investigated for various electroanalytical applications. As the properties of CNTs heavily depend on the fabrication conditions, it is expected that the electrochemical performance will also vary between CNTs from different processes. However, it is still not well known how the different synthesis conditions affect the electrochemical properties of CNTs. Thus, here we investigate the effect of synthesis rate on the physicochemical properties of CNT networks. Through extensive structural and chemical analysis, we show that the widely different synthesis rates, fast and slow, produced CNT networks with surprisingly similar properties. The only distinct differences were seen in the TEM tomography 3D reconstructions, where the faster synthesis produced a less dense network with larger bundle size. Moreover, minor changes were seen in the composition of Fe catalyst particles where the faster rate network mainly exhibited metallic Fe, whereas carbide and oxidized Fe phases were observed in the slower rate network. Although no changes were seen in the electron transfer kinetics with outer-sphere probes, it was clear that even these small changes in physicochemical properties affected the surface sensitive inner-sphere analytes. With slower synthesis rate i) sensitivity towards all analgesics, especially oxycodone, was enhanced and ii) oxidation potential of all analytes shifted to cathodic direction in comparison to higher synthesis rate. In the wider context, we propose that good quality CNTs can be fabricated rapidly in industrial scale for biosensing purposes. However, in electroanalytical applications properties of CNTs should be optimized for the analyte of interest.

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Series: Journal of electroanalytical chemistry
ISSN: 1572-6657
ISSN-E: 1873-2569
ISSN-L: 1572-6657
Volume: 896
Article number: 115255
DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2021.115255
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
216 Materials engineering
116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This project was supported by Business Finland (FEPOD 2117731 project) as well as European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programs under the Marie Skłodowska‐Curie grant agreement No 841621 and H2020-FETPROACT-2018-01 under grant agreement No 824070. Use of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract number DE‐AC02‐76SF00515.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.This is an open access article under the CC BY license (