University of Oulu

Aguilar, M., Cavasonza, L., Alpat, B., et al. (2021) Properties of a New Group of Cosmic Nuclei: Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on Sodium, Aluminum, and Nitrogen. Physical Review Letters, 127(2), 021101.

Properties of a new group of cosmic nuclei : results from the alpha magnetic spectrometer on sodium, aluminum, and nitrogen

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Author: Aguilar, M.1; Cavasonza, L. Ali2,3; Alpat, B.4;
Ambrosi, G.4; Arruda, L.5; Attig, N.6,7; Barao, F.5; Barrin, L.8; Bartoloni, A.9; Basegmez-du Pree, S.10; Battiston, R.11,12; Behlmann, M.13; Beranek, B.2,3; Berdugo, J.1; Bertucci, B.4,14; Bindi, V15; Bollweg, K.16; Borgia, B.9,17; Boschini, M. J.18; Bourquin, M.19; Bueno, E. F.10; Burger, J.13; Burger, W. J.11; Burmeister, S.20; Cai, X. D.13; Capell, M.13; Casaus, J.1; Castellini, G.21; Cervelli, F.22; Chang, Y. H.23; Chen, G. M.24,25; Chen, G. R.26; Chen, H. S.24,25; Chen, Y.19,26; Cheng, L.26; Chou, H. Y.27,28; Chouridou, S.2,3; Choutko, V13; Chung, C. H.2,3; Clark, C.13,16; Coignet, G.29; Consolandi, C.15; Contin, A.30,31; Corti, C.15; Cui, Z.32,26; Dadzie, K.13; Delgado, C.1; Della Torre, S.18; Demirkoz, M. B.33; Derome, L.34; Di Falco, S.22; Di Felice, V35; Diaz, C.1; Dimiccoli, F.11; von Doetinchem, P.15; Dong, F.36; Donnini, F.35; Duranti, M.4; Egorov, A.13; Eline, A.13; Feng, J.13; Fiandrini, E.4,14; Fisher, P.13; Formato, V35; Freeman, C.15; Gamez, C.1; Garcia-Lopez, R. J.37,38; Gargiulo, C.8; Gast, H.2,3; Gervasi, M.18,39; Giovacchini, F.1; Gomez-Coral, D. M.15; Gong, J.36; Goy, C.29; Grabski, V40; Grandi, D.18,39; Graziani, M.4,14; Haino, S.23; Han, K. C.41; Hashmani, R. K.33; He, Z. H.42; Heber, B.20; Hsieh, T. H.13; Hu, J. Y.24,25; Incagli, M.22; Jang, W. Y.43; Jia, Yi13; Jinchi, H.41; Khiali, B.35; Kim, G. N.43; Kirn, Th2,3; Konyushikhin, M.13; Kounina, O.13; Kounine, A.13; Koutsenko, V13; Krasnopevtsev, D.13; Kuhlman, A.15; Kulemzin, A.13; La Vacca, G.18,39; Laudi, E.8; Laurenti, G.30; Lazzizzera, I11,12; Lebedev, A.13; Lee, H. T.44; Lee, S. C.23; Li, J. Q.36; Li, M.2,3; Li, Q.36; Li, S.2,3; Li, J. H.32; Li, Z. H.24,25; Liang, J.32; Light, C.15; Lin, C. H.23; Lippert, T.6,7; Liu, J. H.45; Liu, Z.19; Lu, S. Q.23; Lu, Y. S.24; Luebelsmeyer, K.2,3; Luo, J. Z.36; Luo, Xi26; Machate, F.2,3; Mana, C.1; Marin, J.1; Marquardt, J.20; Martin, T.13,16; Martinez, G.1; Masi, N.30,31; Maurin, D.34; Medvedeva, T.13; Menchaca-Rocha, A.40; Meng, Q.36; Mikhailov, V. V.46; Molero, M.1; Mott, P.13,16; Mussolin, L.4,14; Negrete, J.15; Nikonov, N.2,3; Nozzoli, F.11; Oliva, A.30; Orcinha, M.5; Palermo, M.15; Palmonari, F.30,31; Paniccia, M.19; Pashnin, A.13; Pauluzzi, M.4,14; Pensotti, S.18,39; Phan, H. D.13; Plyaskin, V13; Pohl, M.19; Poluianov, S.47,48; Qin, X.13; Qu, Z. Y.23; Quadrani, L.30,31; Rancoita, P. G.18; Rapin, D.19; Conde, A. Reina37,38; Robyn, E.19; Rosier-Lees, S.29; Rozhkov, A.13; Rozza, D.18,39; Sagdeev, R.49; Schael, S.2,3; von Dratzig, A. Schulz2,3; Schwering, G.2,3; Seo, E. S.50; Shakfa, Z.33; Shan, B. S.51; Siedenburg, T.2,3; Solano, C.13; Song, J. W.32; Song, X. J.26; Sonnabend, R.2,3; Strigari, L.9; Su, T.26; Sun, Q.32; Sun, Z. T.24,25; Tacconi, M.18,39; Tang, X. W.24; Tang, Z. C.24; Tian, J.4,14; Ting, Samuel C. C.13,8; Ting, S. M.13; Tomassetti, N.4,14; Torsti, J.52; Tuysuz, C.33; Urban, T.13,16; Usoskin, I47,48; Vagelli, V.4,53; Vainio, R.52; Valencia-Otero, M.27,28; Valente, E.9,17; Valtonen, E.52; Acosta, M. Vazquez37,38; Vecchi, M.10; Velasco, M.1; Vialle, J. P.29; Wang, C. X.32; Wang, L.45,32; Wang, L. Q.32; Wang, N. H.32; Wang, Q. L.45; Wang, S.15; Wang, X.13; Wang, Yu32; Wang, Z. M.26; Wei, J.19; Weng, Z. L.13; Wu, H.36; Xiong, R. Q.36; Xu, W.32,26; Yan, Q.13; Yang, Y.54; Yashin, I. I.46; Yi, H.36; Yu, Y. M.13; Yu, Z. Q.24; Zannoni, M.18,39; Zhang, C.24; Zhang, F.24,25; Zhang, F. Z.24,25; Zhang, J. H.36; Zhang, Z.13; Zhao, F.24,25; Zheng, C.26; Zheng, Z. M.51; Zhuang, H. L.24; Zhukov, V2,3; Zichichi, A.30,31; Zuccon, P.11,12
Organizations: 1Ctr Invest Energet Medioambientales & Tecnol CIEM, Madrid 28040, Spain.
2Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
3Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, JARA FAME, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
4Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
5Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas Lip, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal.
6Julich Supercomp Ctr, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
7Res Ctr Julich, JARA FAME, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
8European Org Nucl Res CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
9Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
10Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, POB 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
11INFN TIFPA, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
12Univ Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
13MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
14Univ Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
15Univ Hawaii, Phys & Astron Dept, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
16NASA, Johnson Space Ctr JSC, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
17Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
18Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
19Univ Geneva, DPNC, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
20Christian Alberts Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Angew Phys, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.
21CNR IROE, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
22Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.
23Acad Sinica, Inst Phys, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
24Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys IHEP, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
25Univ Chinese Acad Sci UCAS, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
26Shandong Inst Adv Technol SDIAT, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
27Natl Cent Univ NCU, Phys Dept, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
28Natl Cent Univ NCU, Ctr High Energy & High Field Phys, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
29Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, LAPP IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.
30Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
31Univ Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
32Shandong Univ SDU, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
33Middle East Tech Univ METU, Dept Phys, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
34Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LPSC IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
35Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
36Southeast Univ SEU, Nanjing 210096, Peoples R China.
37Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Spain.
38Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain.
39Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
40Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Ciudad De Mexico 01000, Mexico.
41Natl Chung Shan Inst Sci & Technol NCSIST, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan.
42Sun Yat Sen Univ SYSU, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China.
43Kyungpook Natl Univ, CHEP, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
44Acad Sinica Grid Ctr ASGC, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
45Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Elect Engn IEE, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
46NRNU MEPhI Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia.
47Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Oulu 90014, Finland.
48Univ Oulu, Space Phys & Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland.
49Univ Maryland, East West Ctr Space Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
50Univ Maryland, IPST, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
51Beihang Univ BUAA, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
52Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Space Res Lab, Turku 20014, Finland.
53Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
54Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.
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Language: English
Published: American Physical Society, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-12-09


We report the properties of sodium (Na) and aluminum (Al) cosmic rays in the rigidity range 2.15 GV to 3.0 TV based on 0.46 million sodium and 0.51 million aluminum nuclei collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station. We found that Na and Al, together with nitrogen (N), belong to a distinct cosmic ray group. In this group, we observe that, similar to the N flux, both the Na flux and Al flux are well described by the sums of a primary cosmic ray component (proportional to the silicon flux) and a secondary cosmic ray component (proportional to the fluorine flux). The fraction of the primary component increases with rigidity for the N, Na, and Al fluxes and becomes dominant at the highest rigidities. The Na/Si and Al/Si abundance ratios at the source, 0.036 +/- 0.003 for Na/Si and 0.103 +/- 0.004 for Al/Si, are determined independent of cosmic ray propagation.

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Series: Physical review letters
ISSN: 0031-9007
ISSN-E: 1079-7114
ISSN-L: 0031-9007
Volume: 127
Issue: 2
Article number: 021101
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.021101
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: We are grateful for important physics discussions with Jonathan Feng and Igor Moskalenko. We thank former NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin for his dedication to the legacy of the ISS as a scientific laboratory and his decision for NASA to fly AMS as a DOE payload. We also acknowledge the continuous support of the NASA leadership, particularly William H. Gerstenmaier, and of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) flight control teams that have allowed AMS to operate optimally on the ISS for over nine years. We are grateful for the support of Jim Siegrist, Glen Crawford, and their staff of the Department of Energy (DOE) including resources from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We gratefully acknowledge the strong support from CERN including Fabiola Gianotti, and the CERN IT department including Bernd PanzerSteindel, and from the European Space Agency including Johann-Dietrich Worner and Simonetta Di Pippo. We also acknowledge the continuous support from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its School of Science, Michael Sipser, and the Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Boleslaw Wyslouch. Research supported by the following: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Institute of Electrical Engineering, China Academy of Space Technology, National Natural Science Foundation, and Ministry of Science and Technology, the China Scholarship Council, the provincial governments of Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong University, and the Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology, China; the Academy of Finland, Project No. 321882, Finland; CNRS/IN2P3 and CNES, France; DLR under Grants No. 50OO1403 and 50OO1805, Germany [34]; INFN and ASI under ASI-INFN Agreements No. 2014-037-R.1-2017 and No. 2019-19HH.0 and ASI-University of Perugia Agreement No. 20192-HH.0, Italy; CHEP and NRF under Grant No. NRF2018R1A6A1A06024970 at Kyungpook National University, Korea; the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and UNAM, Mexico; NWO under Grant No. 680-1-004, Netherlands; FCT under Grant No. CERN/FIS-PAR/0013/2019, Portugal; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under Project No. 0723-2020-0040, Russia; CIEMAT, IAC, CDTI, and SEIDI-MINECO under Grants No. PID2019-107988GBC21/C22, No. CEX2019-000920-S, and No. MDM-20150509, Spain; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), federal and cantonal authorities, and the Fondation Dr. Manfred Steuer, Switzerland; Academia Sinica and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under Grants No. 107-2119-M-006-015-MY3, No. 109-2112-M-001-029, and No. CDA-105-M06, former Presidents of Academia Sinica Yuan-Tseh Lee and ChiHuey Wong and former Ministers of MOST Maw-Kuen Wu and Luo-Chuan Lee, Taiwan; the Turkish Energy, Nuclear and Mineral Research Agency (TENMAK) under Grants No. 2020TAEK(CERN)A5.H1.F5-26, Turkey; and NSF Grants No. 1455202 and No. 1551980, Wyle Laboratories Grant No. 2014/T72497, and NASA NESSF Grant No. HELIO15F-0005, USA.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.