University of Oulu

Charbonneau A, M, Åström P, Salo T, Roy S, Tran S, D: Axolotls’ and Mices’ Oral-Maxillofacial Trephining Wounds Heal Differently. Cells Tissues Organs 2021;210:260-274. doi:

Axolotls’ and mices’ oral-maxillofacial trephining wounds heal differently

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Author: Charbonneau, A. M.1,2,3; Åström, P.2; Salo, T.2,3;
Organizations: 1Craniofacial Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
2Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland and HUSLAB, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Stomatology, University de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 21.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Karger, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-12-21


The Ambystoma maxicanum (axolotl) regenerates strikingly from wounds and amputations. Comparing its healing ability to non-regenerative species such as the mouse should help narrow in on mechanisms to improve human wound healing. Here, the tongue and intermandibular soft tissues of both mice (C57BL/6NCrl) and axolotls were wounded with a 2–2.5 mm punch biopsy. The study aimed to compare the differences between these 2 species following surgical resection with regard to the macroscopic and histological characteristics. These include wound closure times, epithelial wound sealing and thickness as well as acute immune marker myeloperoxidase (MPO) response over 30 days. Post surgery, mice visually showed greater haemorrhage; their wounds immediately collapsed while it took 14 days for the axolotls mandibular void to close. The epithelium sealed the axolotls’ wound margins within 24 h with a maximal mean thickness of 0.42 ± 0.13-fold normalized to unwounded skin. In mice, the epithelium separately sealed the ventral and dorsal sides, respectively at 7 and 7–30 days with mean maximal epithelial thicknesses reaching 13 ± 5.6 and 3.0 ± 0.63-fold. Mean MPO-positive cell values peaked in axolotls at 14 ± 1.5-fold between hours 6–12; while in mice, it peaked at 8.7 ± 0.9-fold between hours 24–96. We conclude that axolotls form smaller blood clots, have a faster and thinner epithelial cell migrating front, and a shorter MPO-positive cell response in comparison to mice. These observations may help refine future oral and facial wound-healing research and treatment.

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Series: Cells tissues organs
ISSN: 1422-6405
ISSN-E: 1422-6421
ISSN-L: 1422-6405
Volume: 210
Issue: 4
Pages: 260 - 274
DOI: 10.1159/000518036
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
Copyright information: © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.