University of Oulu

T. Sofri et al., "Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 41639-41656, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139385

Health effects of 5G base station exposure : a systematic review

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Author: Sofri, Tasneem1,2; Rahim, Hasliza A.1,2; Abdulmalek, Mohamedfareq3;
Organizations: 1Advanced Communication Engineering, Centre of Excellence (ACE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kangar 01000, Malaysia
2Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau 02600, Malaysia
3Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong in Dubai, Block 15, Dubai Knowledge Village, Dubai, UAE
4Institute of Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Applied and Human Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau 02600, Malaysia
5Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Erkki Koiso Kanttilan Katu 3, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-01-12


The Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology will deliver faster data speeds and support numerous new applications such as virtual and augmented reality. The additional need for a larger number of 5G base stations has sparked widespread public concerns about their possible negative health impacts. This review analyzes the latest research on electromagnetic exposure on humans, with particular attention to its effect on cognitive performance, well-being, physiological parameters, and Electroencephalography (EEG). While most of their results indicated no changes in cognitive function, physiological parameters, or overall well-being, the strength of the EEG alpha wave is noticed to vary depending on various aspects of cognitive functions. However, the available studies have not investigated the health effects resulting from exposure from the 5G mobile phone and base station antennas from 700 MHz to 30 GHz on the cognitive performance, well-being subjective symptoms, human physiological parameters, and EEG of adults. There is a need for such research regarding this current emerging technology. Such studies are significant in determining whether 5G technology is indeed safe for humans.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 10
Pages: 41639 - 41656
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139385
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This research has been financially supported by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (grant no. 2020/01/001).
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see