University of Oulu

A. M. Elshirkasi et al., "Numerical Analysis of Users’ Body Effects on a Fourteen-Element Dual-Band 5G MIMO Mobile Terminal Antenna," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 2083-2096, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139451

Numerical analysis of users’ body effects on a fourteen-element dual-band 5G MIMO mobile terminal antenna

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Author: Elshirkasi, Ahmed Mohamed1; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah1; Khan, Rizwan2;
Organizations: 1Advanced Communication Engineering (ACE) Center of Excellence, School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01000, Malaysia
2Department of Research and Development, Laird Technologies (M) Sdn Bhd, Perai, Penang 13600, Malaysia
3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB), Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand
4College of Computer Technology Zawia, Ministry for Technical & Vocational Education, Tripoli, Libya
5College of Renewable Energies Tajoura, Ministry for Technical & Vocational Education, Tripoli, Libya
6Faculty of Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
7Department of Communication Engineering, Technical College of Civil Aviation and Meteorology, Esbea, Tripoli 84116, Libya
8Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-13


This paper studies the performance of a 14-element dual-band 5G MIMO antenna with body effect and an antenna selection. The antenna operates in the lower frequency band from 3.10 to 3.85 GHz for 5G bands of LTE 42 and 43, whereas the upper band is from 5.60 to 7.20 GHz for the newly assigned 6 GHz WiFi band. The antenna performance was evaluated in free space and under the effect of human body in three scenarios, namely one-hand, two-hands, and call mode. All resulting envelope correlation coefficients are less than 0.3. On the other hand, the free space efficiency of the antenna elements is between 41 % to 77 % in the lower band and 61 % to 95 % in the upper band. Meanwhile, the efficiency of the elements varies depending on the interaction between each element with the hands and the head, with the least obstructed element efficiency degrading to 8 % relative to free space levels. Due to the body effect, multiplexing efficiency loss varies from 2.68 dB to 5.93 dB and the capacity loss is from 14 % to 38 %. Finally, a selection algorithm is used to assess the performance of the overall antenna when 12, 10 and 8 antenna elements are selected for operation. In free space and with number of elements 12, 10 and 8, the system achieves 91.7 %, 80 % and 67 % from the capacity of the 14-element MIMO antenna, respectively. However, in the vicinity of the body, these values increase to 96.3 %, 85.0 % and 72 % from the capacity of the 14-element MIMO antenna, respectively. This signifies that the less-contributing elements as a result of body blockage can be deselected in order to preserve system resources that these elements consume while contributing less significantly to the performance.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 10
Pages: 2083 - 2096
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139451
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) through the Ministry of Education Malaysia under Grant FRGS/1/2019/TK04/UNIMAP/02/21, and in part by the King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok under Grant KMUTNB-FF-65-21. The work of Ping Jack Soh was supported by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see