University of Oulu

Lucas Arrais Campos, Minna Kämäräinen, Anna-Sofia Silvola, João Marôco, Timo Peltomäki & Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos (2021) Orofacial Esthetic Scale and Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties of the Finnish version, Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 79:5, 335-343, DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2020.1857435

Orofacial Esthetic Scale and Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire : development and psychometric properties of the Finnish version

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Author: Camposa, Lucas Arrais1,2; Kämäräinen, Minna3; Silvola, Anna-Sofia4;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
2Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, Brazil
3Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
4Department of Oral Development and Orthodontics, Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5William James Center for Research (WJCR), University Institute of Psychological, Social, and Life Sciences (ISPA), Lisbon, Portugal
6Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
7Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
8Department of Ear and Oral Diseases, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
9Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, Brazil
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-14


Objective: To develop the Finnish version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES-Fi) and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ-Fi) and estimate the psychometric properties of these instruments applied to adult Finns.

Methods: The English versions of the instruments were translated into Finnish and back-translated. Thereafter, OES-Fi and PIDAQ-Fi were established in a pilot study. The factorial validity was estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFI, TLI, SRMR) in independent samples (Test and Validation samples). The measurement invariance of the factorial models was tested using multigroup analysis (ΔCFI). Convergent validity [Average Variance Extracted (AVE)] and reliability [Composite Reliability (CR) and α] were estimated.

Results: A total of 3636 individuals [mean age = 32.0 (SD = 11.6) years, 75% women] participated in the study. After refinements, the factorial model of the instruments showed an adequate fit to the data (CFI ≥0.94, TLI ≥0.90, SRMR ≤0.07) and showed measurement invariance in two independent samples (|ΔCFI| <0.01). Convergent validity (AVE = 0.54–0.82) and reliability (α = 0.86–0.94) were adequate.

Conclusion: The data obtained using OES-Fi and PIDAQ-Fi were valid and reliable. Thus, these instruments could be useful for evaluating individual satisfaction with orofacial appearance and the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in a clinical or research setting.

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Series: Acta odontologica Scandinavica
ISSN: 0001-6357
ISSN-E: 1502-3850
ISSN-L: 0001-6357
Volume: 79
Issue: 5
Pages: 335 - 343
DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2020.1857435
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: This study received financial support from São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) [grant numbers 2018/06739-1 and 2019/19590-9]. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) [Finance Code 001].
Copyright information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.