Mustonen, A., Hielscher, E., Miettunen, J., Denissoff, A., Alakokkare, A., Scott, J., & Niemelä, S. (2021). Adolescent cannabis use, depression and anxiety disorders in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. BJPsych Open, 7(4), E137. doi:10.1192/bjo.2021.967
Adolescent cannabis use, depression and anxiety disorders in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986
|Author:||Mustonen, Antti1,2,3; Hielscher, Emily4,5,6; Miettunen, Jouko2,7;|
1Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Finland
2Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Finland
3Department of Psychiatry, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Finland
4QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia
5School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Australia
6Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Australia
7Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Finland
8Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, Finland
9Metro North Mental Health Service, Australia
10Addiction Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe202201144811
Cambridge University Press,
|Publish Date:|| 2022-01-14
Background: Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders. However, associations between adolescent cannabis use, depression and anxiety disorders are inconsistently reported in longitudinal samples.
Aims: To study associations of adolescent cannabis use with depression and anxiety disorders.
Method: We used data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, linked to nationwide registers, to study the association between adolescent cannabis use and depression and anxiety disorders until 33 years of age (until 2018).
Results: We included 6325 participants (48.8% male) in the analyses; 352 (5.6%) participants reported cannabis use until 15–16 years of age. By the end of the follow-up, 583 (9.2%) participants were diagnosed with unipolar depression and 688 (10.9%) were diagnosed with anxiety disorder. Cannabis use in adolescence was associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders in crude models. After adjusting for parental psychiatric disorder, baseline emotional and behavioural problems, demographic factors and other substance use, using cannabis five or more times was associated with increased risk of anxiety disorders (hazard ratio 2.01, 95% CI 1.15–3.82), and using cannabis once (hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.30–2.87) or two to four times (hazard ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.24–3.31) was associated with increased risk of depression.
Conclusions: Cannabis use in adolescence was associated with an increased risk of future depression and anxiety disorders. Further research is needed to clarify if this is a causal association, which could then inform public health messages about the use of cannabis in adolescence.
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study is funded by EU QLG1-CT-2000-01643 (EUROBLCS) grant number E51560; NorFA grant numbers 731, 20056 and 30167; and NIH 2000 G DF682 grant number 50945. For this study, A.M. received funding from Emil Aaltonen Foundation, and S.N. received funding from the Juho Vainio Foundation and Sohlberg Foundation. A.D. received funding from the Juho Vainio foundation. J.G.S. is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Practitioner Fellowship (number APP1105807). The funders did not have role in the design or conduct of the study, interpretation of the data, final approval of the manuscript or decision to submit this manuscript for publication.
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.