University of Oulu

Heidari, A.; Niknahad, N.; Iljana, M.; Fabritius, T. A Review on the Kinetics of Iron Ore Reduction by Hydrogen. Materials 2021, 14, 7540.

A review on the kinetics of iron ore reduction by hydrogen

Saved in:
Author: Heidari, Aidin1; Niknahad, Niusha2; Iljana, Mikko1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694, Iran
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-14


A clean energy revolution is occurring across the world. As iron and steelmaking have a tremendous impact on the amount of CO₂ emissions, there is an increasing attraction towards improving the green footprint of iron and steel production. Among reducing agents, hydrogen has shown a great potential to be replaced with fossil fuels and to decarbonize the steelmaking processes. Although hydrogen is in great supply on earth, extracting pure H₂ from its compound is costly. Therefore, it is crucial to calculate the partial pressure of H₂ with the aid of reduction reaction kinetics to limit the costs. This review summarizes the studies of critical parameters to determine the kinetics of reduction. The variables considered were temperature, iron ore type (magnetite, hematite, goethite), H₂/CO ratio, porosity, flow rate, the concentration of diluent (He, Ar, N₂), gas utility, annealing before reduction, and pressure. In fact, increasing temperature, H₂/CO ratio, hydrogen flow rate and hematite percentage in feed leads to a higher reduction rate. In addition, the controlling kinetics models and the impact of the mentioned parameters on them investigated and compared, concluding chemical reaction at the interfaces and diffusion of hydrogen through the iron oxide particle are the most common kinetics controlling models.

see all

Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 14
Issue: 24
Article number: 7540
DOI: 10.3390/ma14247540
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research was funded by Business Finland as a part of the Towards Fossil-free Steel (FFS) research program, grant number 45774/31/2020. This research is a part of the CLEAN2STEEL project that benefits from the financial and strategic support of the Kvantum Institute.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (