University of Oulu

Heikkilä, A., Iljana, M., Heikkinen, E., Koskela, A. and Fabritius, T. (2022), Effect of Coal and Coke Ash on Blast Furnace Slag Properties: A Comparison Between Pulverized Coal, Charcoal, Fossil-Based Coke, and Biocoke. steel research int., 93: 2100188.

Effect of coal and coke ash on blast furnace slag properties : a comparison between pulverized coal, charcoal, fossil-based coke, and biocoke

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Author: Heikkilä, Anne1; Iljana, Mikko1; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 4300, Oulu, FI, 90014 Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-01-14


Blast furnace (BF) is the most used equipment for production of iron in the world. It is charged mainly with metallurgical coke and ferrous materials. When descending inside the BF, iron-bearing materials start reducing and melting with other burden materials. This melting leads to the formation of so-called primary slags from which the final slag is formed as materials descend inside the furnace. Each charge material has a unique effect on the total composition of the BF slag. Herein, the parts of the slag, which originate from ash of metallurgical coke and pulverized coal, and changes in the final slag compositions and properties are focused on. The global trend is to decrease the use of fossil-based carbon by replacing it with bio-based coal. Ash from coke and pulverized coal eventually dissolve in the final slag, affecting its properties. The purpose herein is to evaluate how BF slag composition changes when fossil-based coke is replaced with biocoke and pulverized coal is replaced with charcoal. Based on mass balance calculations, these replacements have both increasing and decreasing effects on solidus and liquidus temperatures, viscosity, and CaO/SiO₂ and MgO/Al₂O₃ ratios depending on the used replacement materials.

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Series: Steel research international
ISSN: 1611-3683
ISSN-E: 1869-344X
ISSN-L: 1611-3683
Volume: 93
Issue: 3
Article number: 2100188
DOI: 10.1002/srin.202100188
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 222 Other engineering and technologies
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Steel Research International published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.