University of Oulu

Hall, C. M., & Seyfi, S. (2021). Tourism and sanctions. In P.A.G. van Bergeijk (ed.), Research Handbook on Economic Sanctions (pp. 351-368), Edward Elgar Publishing.

Tourism and sanctions

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Author: Hall, C. Michael1,2,3,4; Seyfi, Siamak1
Organizations: 1Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
2Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
3School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
4School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Edward Elgar, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-12-10


Tourism is a important economic sector in many countries of the world and a major source of employment, government revenue and foreign exchange earnings. It is also one of the sectors most vulnerable to and affected by the introduction of economic sanctions. Tourism is usually defined as a form of short-term voluntary mobility which means that it includes not just leisure/holiday travel, but also business travel, visiting friends and relations. Therefore, the reach of tourism includes the movement of a country’s diaspora as well as business connectivity. Sanctions can affect tourism directly, i.e. through the imposition of limitations on individual mobility as well as carriers, as well as substantially affecting investment in the sector. Indirectly, sanctions can affect industry access to equipment and technology, leading in the long-term to a run down in infrastructure and plant as well as a negative destination image. The chapter addresses these issues in relation to a number of cases including Cuba, Iran, Turkey and Russia and notes the way that while tourism flows are often severely affected by the imposition of sanctions, tourism is also sometimes seen as a response.

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ISBN: 978-1-83910-272-1
ISBN Print: 978-1-83910-271-4
Pages: 351 - 368
DOI: 10.4337/9781839102721.00028
Host publication: Research handbook on economic sanctions
Host publication editor: van Bergeijk, Peter A. G.
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 517 Political science
Copyright information: © 2021 Editor and the Contributors. This is a draft chapter. The final version is available in Research Handbook on Economic Sanctions edited by P.A.G. van Bergeijk, published in 2021, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd The material cannot be used for any other purpose without further permission of the publisher, and is for private use only.