University of Oulu

Jeronen, E.; Ahonen, P.; Korkeamäki, R.-L. Connections of Transformative Education with Bhutan’s Pedagogical Ideas for Promoting Sustainability Education. Sustainability 2022, 14, 163.

Connections of transformative education with Bhutan’s pedagogical ideas for promoting sustainability education

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Author: Jeronen, Eila1; Ahonen, Päivi1; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa1
Organizations: 1Faculty of Education, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-01-18


The study aims to clarify how transformative education teaching and learning ideas have been incorporated into sustainable development-focused education in Bhutan. Sustainable development is included in various ways in the Educating for Gross National Happiness Training Manual (GNH TM) developed by the Ministry of Education of Bhutan in 2013. GNH-focused education aims at developing students’ respect and critical thinking for the well-being of human beings and the environment. The article provides an overview of 26 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 1991–2021. Altogether, 12 sustainable development-focused transformative education articles were analyzed in detail using qualitative content analysis. The results of the study show that transformative education is reflected in many ways in the teaching goals, objectives, contents, and methods introduced in the GNH TM units. Consequently, transformative education and teaching have become part of teaching in Bhutan’s schools, with an emphasis on sustainable development and protection of the environment. However, for a sustainable future, active student-centered teaching and learning methods should be used in a more diverse way.

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Series: Sustainability
ISSN: 2071-1050
ISSN-E: 2071-1050
ISSN-L: 2071-1050
Volume: 14
Article number: 163
DOI: 10.3390/su14010163
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (