University of Oulu

Mohammad Sharifi-Tehrani, Siamak Seyfi, Mustafeed Zaman, At the intersection of tourism social entrepreneurship and empathy: Development and validation of an empathy scale, Journal of Business Research, Volume 141, 2022, Pages 433-447, ISSN 0148-2963,

At the intersection of tourism social entrepreneurship and empathy : development and validation of an empathy scale

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Author: Sharifi-Tehrani, Mohammad1; Seyfi, Siamak2; Zaman, Mustafeed3
Organizations: 1Independent Researcher, Iran
2Department of Tourism Geographies, University of Oulu, Finland
3EM Normandie Business School – Metis Lab, Le Havre, France
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2024-12-27


The main purpose of the present study is to develop and validate a theoretically sound and empirically rigorous measure of cultural empathy, entitled Tourism Social Entrepreneurial Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (abbreviated as TSE-SEE). To this end, both qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection and analysis were employed based on four complementary and independent studies and samples (total n = 1182) from different sectors of the tourism industry. The final refined TSE-EES encompasses 25 items and four dimensions. The results demonstrated the validity and reliability of the TSE-SSE in China, Iran, and Poland. The TSE-SEE can be considered, among others, a diagnostic instrument for evaluating the impact of social entrepreneurship education programs and its application may prove effective means of developing emotional skills in the field of tourism social entrepreneurship.

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Series: Journal of business research
ISSN: 0148-2963
ISSN-E: 1873-7978
ISSN-L: 0148-2963
Volume: 141
Pages: 433 - 447
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.11.041
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Copyright information: © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http:/