University of Oulu

Abass, K., Pelkonen, O., & Rautio, A. (2021). Chloro-s-triazines-toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, human exposure, and regulatory considerations. Current Drug Metabolism, 22(8), 645–656.

Chloro-s-triazines-toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, human exposure, and regulatory considerations

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Author: Abass, Khaled1,2; Pelkonen, Olavi3; Rautio, Arja1,4
Organizations: 1Arctic Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, P.O. Box 7300, FI-90014, Finland
2Department of Pesticides, Menoufia University, P.O. Box 32511, Egypt
3Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit, Research Unit of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
4Thule Institute, University of the Arctic, Rovaniemi, P.O. Box 7300, FI-90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Bentham Science, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-18


Chloro-s-triazines-atrazine, cyanazine, propazine, simazine, and terbuthylazine-are structurally similar herbicides, differing only in specific s-triazine4-and 6-N alkyl substituents. It is generally regarded that their toxicokinetics, such as, metabolic pathways, biological effects and toxicities, also share more similar features than the differences. Consequently, it is useful to compare their characteristics to potentially find useful structure-activity relationships or other similarities or differences regarding different active compounds, their metabolites, and biological effects including toxic outcomes. The ultimate goal of these exercises is to apply the summarized knowledge-as far as it is possible regarding a patchy and often inadequate database-to cross the in vitro-in vivo and animal-human borders and integrate the available data to enhance toxicological risk assessment for the benefit of humans and ecosystems.

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Series: Current drug metabolism
ISSN: 1389-2002
ISSN-E: 1875-5453
ISSN-L: 1389-2002
Volume: 22
Issue: 8
Pages: 645 - 656
DOI: 10.2174/1389200222666210701164945
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 3111 Biomedicine
Funding: This work was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 825762-EDCMET and supported by a grant from Thule Institute, University of Oulu, Finland.
EU Grant Number: (825762) EDCMET - Metabolic effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: novel testing METhods and adverse outcome pathways
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. This is an Open Access article published under CC BY 4.0 ( /4.0/legalcode).