University of Oulu

Juanxue Kang, Lei Gao, Mingyuan Zhang, Jing Pu, Lin He, Rongsheng Ruan, Mamdouh Omran, Jinhui Peng, Guo Chen, Synthesis of rutile TiO2 powder by microwave-enhanced roasting followed by hydrochloric acid leaching, Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 31, Issue 3, 2020, Pages 1140-1147, ISSN 0921-8831,

Synthesis of rutile TiO₂ powder by microwave-enhanced roasting followed by hydrochloric acid leaching

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Author: Kang, Juanxue1; Gao, Lei1; Zhang, Mingyuan1;
Organizations: 1Key Laboratory of Green-Chemistry Materials in University of Yunnan Province, Kunming Key Laboratory of Energy Materials Chemistry, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500, PR China
2Center for Biorefining, Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering Department, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave., Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
3Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Finland, P.O. Box: 4300, Finland
4Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, PR China
5State Key Laboratory of Vanadium and Titanium Resources Comprehensive Utilization, Pangang Group Research Institute Co., Ltd., Panzhihua 617000, PR China
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2022-01-20


In this paper, the preparation of rutile TiO₂ powder from titanium slag by microwave-assisted activation roasting followed by hydrochloric acid leaching was investigated. The effects of the additive Na₂CO₃ on the crystal form, cell, crystallinity, phase transformation, surface functional groups and micro-surface structure of the calcined product were systematically studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results confirmed that the strongest characteristic Raman bands of rutile TiO₂ and the weakest FT-IR bands of (CO₃)⁻² were found when the Na₂CO₃ mass ratio was 0.4. Accordingly, the crystallinity for the product, namely short rod structure rutile TiO₂ powder, reached its peak value of 99.21% with a corresponding average grain size of 43.5 nm. The excessive Na₂CO₃ was found to be disadvantageous for the crystallinity of the product, since it formed a coverage on the surface of titanium slag which prevented the oxidation reaction for the decomposition of anosovite.

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Series: Advanced powder technology
ISSN: 0921-8831
ISSN-E: 1568-5527
ISSN-L: 0921-8831
Volume: 31
Issue: 3
Pages: 1140 - 1147
DOI: 10.1016/j.apt.2019.12.042
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No: U1802255, 51504110 and 51424114), Yunnan Applied Basic Research Project of China (No: 2017FD117) and Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) in University of Yunnan Province were sincerely acknowledged.
Copyright information: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license by