University of Oulu

Zong-Xian Zhang, De-Feng Hou, Adeyemi Aladejare, Toochukwu Ozoji & Yang Qiao (2021) World mineral loss and possibility to increase ore recovery ratio in mining production, International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 35:9, 670-691, DOI: 10.1080/17480930.2021.1949878

World mineral loss and possibility to increase ore recovery ratio in mining production

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Author: Zhang, Zong-Xian1; Hou, De-Feng1; Aladejare, Adeyemi1;
Organizations: 1Oulu Mining School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-20


Based on the data of global mineral production and ore recovery in mining and mineral processing, this paper presents the annual production of 25 minerals and calculates the annual losses of 20 minerals from the year 1920 to 2018. The results indicate that the annual production of 23 minerals has increased by between 1 and 930 times since 1920, similar to the increase in the GDP per capita since 1960. At the same time, a vast amount of minerals has been lost in mining and mineral processing since 1920. Hence, this paper discusses the possibility of increasing ore recovery ratio.

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Series: International journal of mining, reclamation and environment
ISSN: 1748-0930
ISSN-E: 1748-0949
ISSN-L: 1748-0930
Volume: 35
Issue: 9
Pages: 670 - 691
DOI: 10.1080/17480930.2021.1949878
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
218 Environmental engineering
212 Civil and construction engineering
Funding: This research was supported by University of Oulu. The second and fourth author are grateful to the China Scholarship Council (CSC) for the support to their visit to University of Oulu.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.