University of Oulu

Querejeta, M., Schinnerer, E., Meidt, S., Sun, J., Leroy, A. K., Emsellem, E., Klessen, R. S., Muñoz-Mateos, J. C., Salo, H., Laurikainen, E., Bešlić, I., Blanc, G. A., Chevance, M., Dale, D. A., Eibensteiner, C., Faesi, C., García-Rodríguez, A., Glover, S. C. O., Grasha, K., et al. (2021). Stellar structures, molecular gas, and star formation across the PHANGS sample of nearby galaxies. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 656, A133. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202140695

Stellar structures, molecular gas, and star formation across the PHANGS sample of nearby galaxies

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Author: Querejeta, M.1; Schinnerer, E.2; Meidt, S.3;
Organizations: 1Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), C/ Alfonso XII 3, 28014 Madrid, Spain
2Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, 9000 Gent, Belgium
4Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
5European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
6Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
7Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Albert-Ueberle-Straße 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
8Universität Heidelberg, Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Wissenschaftliches Rechnen, INF 205, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
9Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014, Finland
10Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
11The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
12Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
13Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
14Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
15Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 North Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003, USA
16Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia
17IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
18CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
19Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
20NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
21Sorbonne Université, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, LERMA, 75005 Paris, France
22University of Alberta, 4-183 CCIS, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
23Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 16.9 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022012510247
Language: English
Published: EDP Sciences, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-25
Description:

Abstract

We identify stellar structures in the PHANGS sample of 74 nearby galaxies and construct morphological masks of sub-galactic environments based on Spitzer 3.6 μm images. At the simplest level, we distinguish five environments: centres, bars, spiral arms, interarm regions, and discs without strong spirals. Slightly more sophisticated masks include rings and lenses, which are publicly released but not explicitly used in this paper. We examine trends with environment in the molecular gas content, star formation rate, and depletion time using PHANGS–ALMA CO(2–1) intensity maps and tracers of star formation. The interarm regions and discs without strong spirals clearly dominate in area, whereas molecular gas and star formation are quite evenly distributed among the five basic environments. We reproduce the molecular Kennicutt–Schmidt relation with a slope compatible with unity within the uncertainties and without significant slope differences among environments. In contrast to what has been suggested by early studies, we find that bars are not always deserts devoid of gas and star formation, but instead they show large diversity. Similarly, spiral arms do not account for most of the gas and star formation in disc galaxies, and they do not have shorter depletion times than the interarm regions. Spiral arms accumulate gas and star formation, without systematically boosting the star formation efficiency. Centres harbour remarkably high surface densities and on average shorter depletion times than other environments. Centres of barred galaxies show higher surface densities and wider distributions compared to the outer disc; yet, depletion times are similar to unbarred galaxies, suggesting highly intermittent periods of star formation when bars episodically drive gas inflow, without enhancing the central star formation efficiency permanently. In conclusion, we provide quantitative evidence that stellar structures in galaxies strongly affect the organisation of molecular gas and star formation, but their impact on star formation efficiency is more subtle.

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Series: Astronomy and astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
ISSN-E: 1432-0746
ISSN-L: 0004-6361
Volume: 656
Article number: A133
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202140695
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202140695
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Subjects:
Funding: This work is based on observations and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2012.1.00650.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00803.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.01161.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00121.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00782.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00925.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00956.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.00386.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00886.L, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2018.1.01651.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. MQ acknowledges support from the research project PID2019-106027GA-C44 from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. ES, DL, HAP, TS, and TGW acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 694343). The work of JS and AKL is partially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grants No. 1615105, 1615109, and 1653300, as well as by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under ADAP grants NNX16AF48G and NNX17AF39G. RSK and SCOG acknowledge financial support from the German Research Foundation (DFG) via the collaborative research centre (SFB 881, Project-ID 138713538) ‘The Milky Way System’ (subprojects A1, B1, B2, and B8). They also acknowledge funding from the Heidelberg Cluster of Excellence “STRUCTURES” in the framework of Germany’s Excellence Strategy (grant EXC-2181/1, Project-ID 390900948) and from the European Research Council via the ERC Synergy Grant “ECOGAL” (grant 855130). HS and EL acknowledge financial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 721463 to the SUNDIAL ITN network, and by the Academy of Finland grant No. 297738. IB acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 726384/Empire). MC and JMDK gratefully acknowledge funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the form of an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number KR4801/1-1) and the DFG Sachbeihilfe (grant number KR4801/2-1), as well as from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme via the ERC Starting Grant MUSTANG (grant agreement number 714907). CE acknowledges funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Sachbeihilfe, grant number BI1546/3-1. CMF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. 1903946 and acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 694343). AGR acknowledges support from the Spanish funding grants AYA2016-79006-P (MINECO/FEDER) and PID2019-108765GB-I00 (MICINN). AH was supported by the Programme National Cosmology et Galaxies (PNCG) of CNRS/INSU with INP and IN2P3, co-funded by CEA and CNES, and by the Programme National ‘Physique et Chimie du Milieu Inter- stellaire’ (PCMI) of CNRS/INSU with INC/INP co-funded by CEA and CNES. CH and JP acknowledge support from the Programme National ‘Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire’ (PCMI) of CNRS/INSU with INC/INP co-funded by CEA and CNES. KK gratefully acknowledges funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the form of an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number KR4598/2-1, PI Kreckel). ER acknowledges the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), funding reference number RGPIN-2017-03987. AU acknowledges support from the Spanish funding grants AYA2016-79006-P (MINECO/FEDER), PGC2018-094671-B-I00 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER), and PID2019-108765GB-I00 (MICINN). EJW is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) – Project-ID 138713538 – SFB 881 (“The Milky Way System”, subproject P2).
Copyright information: © ESO 2021.