University of Oulu

Reckermann, M., Omstedt, A., Soomere, T., Aigars, J., Akhtar, N., Bełdowska, M., Bełdowski, J., Cronin, T., Czub, M., Eero, M., Hyytiäinen, K. P., Jalkanen, J.-P., Kiessling, A., Kjellström, E., Kuliński, K., Larsén, X. G., McCrackin, M., Meier, H. E. M., Oberbeckmann, S., Parnell, K., Pons-Seres de Brauwer, C., Poska, A., Saarinen, J., Szymczycha, B., Undeman, E., Wörman, A., and Zorita, E.: Human impacts and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region, Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1–80, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-1-2022, 2022.

Human impacts and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region

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Author: Reckermann, Marcus1; Omstedt, Anders2; Soomere, Tarmo3,4;
Organizations: 1International Baltic Earth Secretariat, Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
2Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
3Department of Cybernetics, School of Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
4Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia
5Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Voleru iela 4, 1007, Riga, Latvia
6Institute of Coastal Systems – Analysis and Modeling, Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
7Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland
8Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Marine Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
9DTU Wind Energy Department, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
10Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Marine Ecology Department, Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
11Technical University of Denmark, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Kemitorvet, Building 201, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
12Department of Economics and Management, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
13Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palménin aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki, Finland
14Department of Animal Nutrition and Management: Aquaculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7024, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
15Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Rossby Centre, 601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
16Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
17Department of Physical Oceanography and Instrumentation, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, 18119 Rostock, Germany
18Research and Development Department, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
19Biological Oceanography, Environmental Microbiology, Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Seestrasse 15, 18119 Rostock, Germany
20Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
21Department of Geology, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
22Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
23School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
24KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.2 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022012610369
Language: English
Published: Copernicus Publications, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-01-26
Description:

Abstract

Coastal environments, in particular heavily populated semi-enclosed marginal seas and coasts like the Baltic Sea region, are strongly affected by human activities. A multitude of human impacts, including climate change, affect the different compartments of the environment, and these effects interact with each other. As part of the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR), we present an inventory and discussion of different human-induced factors and processes affecting the environment of the Baltic Sea region, and their interrelations. Some are naturally occurring and modified by human activities (i.e. climate change, coastal processes, hypoxia, acidification, submarine groundwater discharges, marine ecosystems, non-indigenous species, land use and land cover), some are completely human-induced (i.e. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, river regulations, offshore wind farms, shipping, chemical contamination, dumped warfare agents, marine litter and microplastics, tourism, and coastal management), and they are all interrelated to different degrees. We present a general description and analysis of the state of knowledge on these interrelations. Our main insight is that climate change has an overarching, integrating impact on all of the other factors and can be interpreted as a background effect, which has different implications for the other factors. Impacts on the environment and the human sphere can be roughly allocated to anthropogenic drivers such as food production, energy production, transport, industry and economy. The findings from this inventory of available information and analysis of the different factors and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region can largely be transferred to other comparable marginal and coastal seas in the world.

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Series: Earth system dynamics
ISSN: 2190-4979
ISSN-E: 2190-4987
ISSN-L: 2190-4979
Volume: 13
Issue: 1
Pages: 1 - 80
DOI: 10.5194/esd-13-1-2022
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.5194/esd-13-1-2022
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Subjects:
Funding: Tarmo Soomere was supported by the European Economic Area (EEA) Financial Mechanism 2014–2021 Baltic Research Programme, project SolidShore (EMP480), and the Estonian Research Council Grant PRG1129. The research work by Jacek Bełdowski was co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) under the Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme 2014–2020, project #X005 DAIMON 2. It was conducted as a part of an international project co-financed from the funds of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education programme called “International Co-financed Projects” in the years 2019–2021, agreement no. 5051/INTERREG BSRBSR/2019/2. Karol Kuliński was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (grant nos. 2015/19/B/ST10/02120 and 2019/34/E/ST10/00167), and BONUS INTEGRAL project funded by BONUS (Art 185), jointly from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration and the Polish National Centre for Research and Development. Xiaoli Guo Larsén thanks the Danish ForskEL/EUDP (grant no. PSO-12521/EUDP 64017-0017) for support. Kevin Parnell was supported by the European Regional Development Fund programme Mobilitas Plus; Estonian Research Council Top Researcher Grant MOBTT72, reg. no. 2014-2020.4.01.16-0024; the European Economic Area (EEA) Financial Mechanism 2014–2021 Baltic Research Programme, project SolidShore (EMP480); and the Estonian Research Council Grant PRG1129. Anneli Poska was supported by the Estonian Research Council grant no. PRG323. Beata Szymczycha was supported by the Norway Grants 2014-2021 operated by the National Science Centre under project contract 2019/34/H/ST10/00645 and the National Science Center under project contract 2019/34/E/ST10/00217. Emma Undeman was supported by The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management through the grant 1:11 – Measures for marine and water environment.
Copyright information: © Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/