University of Oulu

Rotonen, S., Auvinen, J., Bloigu, A., Härkönen, P., Jokelainen, J., Timonen, M., & Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2021). Long-term dysglycemia as a risk factor for faster cognitive decline during aging: A 12-year follow-up study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 180, 109045.

Long-term dysglycemia as a risk factor for faster cognitive decline during aging : a 12-year follow-up study

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Author: Rotonen, Sanna1,2; Auvinen, Juha1,3; Bloigu, Aini1;
Organizations: 1Centre for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland
2Oulunkaari Health Center, Ii, Finland
3Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
4Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland
5Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital and Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Healthcare and Social Services of Selänne, Pyhäjärvi, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-09-09


Aims: This longitudinal study evaluated associations between glucose metabolism and cognitive performance during a 12-year follow-up.

Methods: We included 714 subjects, which were followed from the age 55 to 70 years. Using oral glucose tolerance tests the population was classified as normoglycemic (NGT) and based on WHO diagnostic criteria for diabetes and prediabetes. Cognitive performance was assessed with a verbal fluency (category) test and wordlist learning tests of CERAD-nb, a verbal fluency (letter) test, and trail-making tests A and B.

Results: Compared to the normal group subjects with long-lasting prediabetes showed significantly greater decline (4.6 versus 2.9 words) on the verbal fluency (category) test (p = 0.041); subjects with long-lasting type 2 diabetes showed significantly greater decline (13 versus 6 s) on the trail making A test (p = 0.021) and on the wordlist learning test (3.3 versus 1.7 words) (p = 0.013); and a combined group of subjects with prediabetes or incident type 2 diabetes showed significantly greater cognitive decline (3.8 versus 2.9 words) in the verbal fluency (category) test (p = 0.039).

Conclusion: Prediabetes was associated with cognitive decline during aging. This finding should be incorporated into prevention strategies, because both type 2 diabetes and dementia are increasing world-wide.

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Series: Diabetes research and clinical practice
ISSN: 0168-8227
ISSN-E: 1872-8227
ISSN-L: 0168-8227
Volume: 180
Article number: 109045
DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.109045
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Copyright information: © 2021 Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license