University of Oulu

Adesanya, E., Karhu, M., Ismailov, A., Ohenoja, K., Kinnunen, P., & Illikainen, M. (2021). Thermal behaviour of ladle slag mortars containing ferrochrome slag aggregates. Advances in Cement Research, 33(4), 168–182.

Thermal behaviour of ladle slag mortars containing ferrochrome slag aggregates

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Author: Adesanya, Elijah1; Karhu, Marjaana1; Ismailov, Arnold1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Fiber and Particle Engineering Unit, PO Box 4300, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Thomas Telford, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-04-23


Concretes, depending on their application, may be exposed to elevated temperatures during their lifetime, especially when placed near or in a furnace or during an accidental fire. The thermal stability of alkali-activated mortars and hydrated mortars prepared using ladle slag and two different aggregates was studied. A commercial calcium aluminate cement was used as a comparison for the properties after exposure to temperatures up to 1000°C. All samples were characterised and analysed through a strength test, dilatometric analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, ultrasonic pulse velocity and scanning electron microscopy. The hydrated ladle slag mortars exhibited properties similar to or better than the commercial calcium aluminate cement, while the alkali-activated ladle slag’s thermal properties were inferior to the hydrated ladle slag mortars. The tests also showed that the use of ferrochrome slag aggregates in hydrated ladle slag mortars exhibited similar properties to those using sand aggregate mortars. The damage behaviours of the mortars were dependent on the temperature-induced dehydration, dehydroxylation and thermal incompatibility between the paste and aggregates. The results from this study specify the possibilities of using 100% industrial by-product-based mortar and near-zero carbon dioxide emissions as a fire-resistant material in furnaces, buildings and fireplaces.

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Series: Advances in cement research
ISSN: 0951-7197
ISSN-E: 1751-7605
ISSN-L: 0951-7197
Volume: 33
Issue: 4
Pages: 168 - 182
DOI: 10.1680/jadcr.19.00040
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
212 Civil and construction engineering
218 Environmental engineering
222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (A70189) under the auspices of the MINSI project and the following companies: SSAB Europe Oy, Ekokem Oy, Stora Enso Oy, Pohjolan Voima Oy, and Oulun Energia Oy.
Copyright information: © ICE Publishing 2021. The final authenticated version is available online at