University of Oulu

Visa Isteri, Katja Ohenoja, Theodore Hanein, Hajime Kinoshita, Holger Kletti, Christiane Rößler, Pekka Tanskanen, Mirja Illikainen, Timo Fabritius, Ferritic calcium sulfoaluminate belite cement from metallurgical industry residues and phosphogypsum: Clinker production, scale-up, and microstructural characterisation, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 154, 2022, 106715, ISSN 0008-8846,

Ferritic calcium sulfoaluminate belite cement from metallurgical industry residues and phosphogypsum : clinker production, scale-up, and microstructural characterisation

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Author: Isteri, Visa1; Ohenoja, Katja2; Hanein, Theodore3,4;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy, Faculty of Technology, PO Box 4300, 90014, University of Oulu, Finland
2Fibre and Particle Engineering, Faculty of Technology, PO Box 4300, 90014, University of Oulu, Finland
3Manatee Consulting Limited, Sheffield S3 7XL, UK
4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
5F.A. Finger Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystr. 11, 99421 Weimar, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-01-31


The production of ferrite-rich calcium sulfoaluminate belite (CSABF) cement clinker, also containing MgO, from ladle slag, Fe-slag, and phosphogypsum was translated from a lab-scale to a pilot demonstration in a 7-metre kiln at 1260 °C. An account of the pilot trials/manufacturing is presented, and the process was robust. Laboratory tests prior to scale-up showed that gehlenite formation can be inhibited in the CSABF clinker by adding excess CaO in the raw meal; however, this reduces the amount of iron (Fe) that can be incorporated into ye’elimite and leads to higher ferrite (C₆AF₂) content. Detailed microstructural analyses were performed on the clinker to reveal the clinker composition as well as the partition of the minor elements. Different ferrite phases with varying amounts of titanium and iron are distinguished. Eighty-five percent of the clinker raw meal was comprised of side-stream materials and the clinker produced in the kiln had chemical raw-material CO₂ emissions 90% lower than that of Portland cement made from virgin raw materials. These results can have a significant impact in regions with a prospering metallurgical industry, enabling industrial decarbonisation and resource efficiency.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 154
Article number: 106715
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2022.106715
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
212 Civil and construction engineering
214 Mechanical engineering
Funding: The work was done in the CECIRE-project, which was supported by Business Finland and the following companies: Boliden Harjavalta, Boliden Kokkola, Yara Suomi, Fortum Waste Solutions and Outokumpu Stainless. Participation of T. Hanein was funded by UKRI FLF (MR/V023829/1). The authors would like to acknowledge IBUtec and Dr. Martin Radke for setting up the pilot configuration and for technical support during the pilot study. XRD, XRF and FESEM analyses were performed at the Centre of Microscopy and Nanotechnology (University of Oulu) and F.A. Finger Institute for Building Materials Science (Bauhaus University). Simo Isokääntä from SSAB Europe Oy re acknowledged for providing ladle slag for the pilot kiln trial. We also thank Tauno Tönning Research Foundation and Walter Ahlström Foundation for the financial support of the work.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (