University of Oulu

Golubenko, K., Rozanov, E., Kovaltsov, G., Leppänen, A.-P., Sukhodolov, T., and Usoskin, I.: Application of CCM SOCOL-AERv2-BE to cosmogenic beryllium isotopes: description and validation for polar regions, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7605–7620,, 2021

Application of CCM SOCOL-AERv2-BE to cosmogenic beryllium isotopes : description and validation for polar regions

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Author: Golubenko, Kseniia1; Rozanov, Eugene2,3,4; Kovaltsov, Gennady5;
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570, Finland
2Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center, Davos Dorf, 7260, Switzerland
3Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, 8092, Switzerland
4St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
5Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia
6Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority – STUK, Rovaniemi, 96400, Finland
7Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, 1180, Austria
8Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Sodankylä, 99600, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Copernicus Publications, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-02-02


The short-living cosmogenic isotope ⁷Be, which is produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, is often used as a tracer for atmospheric dynamics, with precise and high-resolution measurements covering the recent decades. The long-living isotope 10Be, as measured in polar ice cores with an annual resolution, is a proxy for long-term cosmic-ray variability, whose signal can, however, be distorted by atmospheric transport and deposition that need to be properly modeled to be accounted for. While transport of ⁷Be can be modeled with high accuracy using the known meteorological fields, atmospheric transport of ¹⁰Be was typically modeled using case-study-specific simulations or simplified box models based on parameterizations. Thus, there is a need for a realistic model able to simulate atmospheric transport and deposition of beryllium with a focus on polar regions and (inter)annual timescales that is potentially able to operate in a self-consistent mode without the prescribed meteorology. Since measurements of ¹⁰Be are extremely laborious and hence scarce, it is difficult to compare model results directly with measurement data. On the other hand, the two beryllium isotopes are believed to have similar transport and deposition properties, being different only in production and lifetime, and thus the results of ⁷Be transport can be generally applied to ¹⁰Be. Here we present a new model, called CCM SOCOL-AERv2-BE, to trace isotopes of ⁷Be and ¹⁰Be in the atmosphere based on the chemistry–climate model (CCM) SOCOL (SOlar Climate Ozone Links), which has been improved by including modules for the production, deposition, and transport of ⁷Be and ¹⁰Be. Production of the isotopes was modeled for both galactic and solar cosmic rays by applying the CRAC (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade) model. Transport of ⁷Be was modeled without additional gravitational settling due to the submicron size of the background aerosol particles. An interactive deposition scheme was applied including both wet and dry deposition. Modeling was performed using a full nudging to the meteorological fields for the period of 2002–2008 with a spin-up period of 1996–2001. The modeled concentrations of ⁷Be in near-ground air were compared with the measured ones at a weekly time resolution in four nearly antipodal high-latitude locations: two in the Northern (Finland and Canada) and two in the Southern (Chile and the Kerguelen Islands) Hemisphere. The model results agree with the measurements in the absolute level within error bars, implying that the production, decay, and lateral deposition are correctly reproduced. The model also correctly reproduces the temporal variability of ⁷Be concentrations on annual and sub-annual scales, including the presence and absence of the annual cycle in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere, respectively. We also modeled the production and transport of ⁷Be for a major solar energetic particle event (SPE) on 20 January 2005, which appears insufficient to produce a measurable signal but may serve as a reference event for historically known extreme SPEs. Thus, a new full 3D time-dependent model, based on CCM SOCOL, of ⁷Be and ¹⁰Be atmospheric production, transport, and deposition has been developed. Comparison with real data on the ⁷Be concentration in the near-ground air validates the model and its accuracy.

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Series: Geoscientific model development
ISSN: 1991-959X
ISSN-E: 1991-9603
ISSN-L: 1991-959X
Volume: 14
Issue: 12
Pages: 7605 - 7620
DOI: 10.5194/gmd-14-7605-2021
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This research has been supported by the Academy of Finland (ESPERA (grant no. 321882)), the Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (grant nos. 200021-169241 (VEC) and 200020-182239 (POLE)), and the Russian Science Foundation (RSF project no. 20-67-46016). Kseniia Golubenko has been granted a scholarship by the Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia (grant no. 2021; the Vilho, Yrjö, and Kalle Väisälä Foundation). Timofei Sukhodolov worked on the model development as part of the SPbSU “Ozone Layer and Upper Atmosphere Research laboratory” activity supported by the Government of the Russian Federation (grant no. 075-15-2021-583).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.