University of Oulu

Thiago Henrique Scarabello Stape, Merve Uctasli, Hatice Sümeyye Cibelik, Leo Tjäderhane, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay, Dry bonding to dentin: Broadening the moisture spectrum and increasing wettability of etch-and-rinse adhesives, Dental Materials, Volume 37, Issue 11, 2021, Pages 1676-1687, ISSN 0109-5641,

Dry bonding to dentin : broadening the moisture spectrum and increasing wettability of etch-and-rinse adhesives

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Author: Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello1,2; Uctasli, Merve1,2; Cibelik, Hatice Sümeyye1,2;
Organizations: 1Department of Restorative Dentistry and Cariology, Adhesive Dentistry Research Group, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
2Turku University Hospital, TYKS, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
4Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
5Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences and Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-02-04


Objectives: To determine whether the effect of dentin moisture on the etch-and-rinse bonding may be minimized by dry-bonding protocols utilizing aqueous or ethanolic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) pretreatments.

Methods: H₃PO₄-etched mid-coronal dentin surfaces from human molars were randomly blot- or air-dried for 30 s and pretreated with DMSO/H₂O or DMSO/EtOH solutions. Untreated samples served as control. Moisture control was performed by either blot- or air-drying. Samples were bonded with a multistep etch-and-rinse adhesive. Restored crown segments (n = 8/group) were stored in distilled water for 24 h and sectioned for microtensile bond strength testing. Resin-dentin beams (0.8 mm²) were tested under tension until fracture (0.5 mm/min) after 24 h and two years of storage in artificial saliva at 37 °C. SEM nanoleakage evaluation was performed on aged samples. Collagen wettability was also measured by sessile drops of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic bonding resins (n = 8/group). Data were examined by factorial ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05).

Results: Dry bonding to untreated collagen produced inferior immediate and long-term bond strengths than wet bonding (p< 0.05). Regardless of initial hydration and moisture control, DMSO-dry bonding produced initially higher and stable bond strengths after aging (p<0.05). DMSO-pretreated groups presented improved collagen wettability with lower silver uptake (p<0.05).

Significance: Despite the common belief that etch-and-rinse adhesives must be applied onto moist collagen, DMSO-dry bonding protocols not only improved bonding performance and hybrid layer integrity, but also brought more versatility to collagen hybridization by reducing overdrying-related issues.

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Series: Dental materials
ISSN: 0109-5641
ISSN-E: 1879-0097
ISSN-L: 0109-5641
Volume: 37
Issue: 11
Pages: 1676 - 1687
DOI: /10.1016/
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: This work was supported by grant #296653 from the Academy of Finland to AT-M (PI), EVO funding of Turku University Hospital to AT-M (PI). The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Academy of Dental Materials. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (