University of Oulu

Kim, M.J.; Hall, C.M.; Bonn, M. Factors Affecting Pandemic Biosecurity Behaviors of International Travelers: Moderating Roles of Gender, Age, and Travel Frequency. Sustainability 2021, 13, 12332.

Factors affecting pandemic biosecurity behaviors of international travelers : moderating roles of gender, age, and travel frequency

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Author: Kim, Myung Ja1; Hall, C. Michael2,3,4,5; Bonn, Mark6
Organizations: 1The College of Hotel & Tourism Management, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
2Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
3Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Ekonomihögskolan, Linnéuniversitet Universitetskajen, Landgången 6, 39182 Kalmar, Sweden
5Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University, Campus Helsingborg, 25108 Helsingborg, Sweden
6Dedman School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2541, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-02-07


Research undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic has identified a number of significant factors that affect international travelers’ biosecurity behavior. Tourists’ age and gender as well as travel frequency have been found to have significant impacts on consumers’ non-pharmaceutical intervention practices. However, despite the importance of age, gender, and travel frequency, such studies have overlooked international tourists’ values, attitudes, interventions, and behaviors relevant to biosecurity during a pandemic. In order to bridge this gap, the purposes of this study are to build and test a conceptually comprehensive framework on the relationships between values, attitudes, interventions, and behaviors, along with the moderating effects of age, gender, and travel frequency. To meet the study objectives, a digital survey was administered during 1–5 September 2020, which generated n = 386 total useable responses. Data were analyzed using the partial least squares approach. The results revealed that tourists’ values have the greatest effect on their attitudes toward COVID-19 biosecurity for travel, which in turn positively influences interventions and behaviors. Interventions also have a significant impact on travelers’ COVID-19 biosecurity behavior. This study expands the theoretical understanding of biosecurity and pandemic behavior. The findings of this research also provide significant insights to the literature as well as stakeholders, such as governments, health organizations, international health and tourism agencies, and destinations, with respect to managing international travel biosecurity measures.

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Series: Sustainability
ISSN: 2071-1050
ISSN-E: 2071-1050
ISSN-L: 2071-1050
Volume: 13
Issue: 21
Article number: 12332
DOI: 10.3390/su132112332
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (