University of Oulu

Besli, M. M., Kuppan, S., Bone, S. E., Sainio, S., Hellstrom, S., Christensen, J., & Metzger, M. (2021). Performance and lifetime of intercalative water deionization cells for mono- and divalent ion removal. Desalination, 517, 115218.

Performance and lifetime of intercalative water deionization cells for mono- and divalent ion removal

Saved in:
Author: Besli, Muenir M.1,2; Kuppan, Saravanan1; Bone, Sharon E.3;
Organizations: 1Robert Bosch LLC, Research and Technology Center, Sunnyvale, CA 94085, USA
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe 76131, Germany
3Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
4Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2023-07-29


Intercalative deionization (IDI) uses two cation intercalation electrodes separated by an anion exchange membrane in a symmetric cell design that has the potential to deliver electrochemically desalinated water in an energy- and water-efficient way. Here, we define and measure metrics to describe the performance and lifetime of IDI cells and compare them for NaCl and CaCl₂ feed solutions. With 20 mM NaCl, NiHCF/AEM/NiHCF flow cells achieve 10 mM average concentration change at a productivity of 20 l/h/m² and 5 mM average concentration change at 130 l/h/m². In both cases the cells are operated at a 3C current rate and consume ~30 Wh/m³ of energy. With 10 mM CaCl₂, the specific capacity and salt removal of IDI flow cells is ~4 times lower. NiHCF/NiHCF beaker cells with CaCl₂ electrolyte suffer from strong capacity fade, while the same cells with NaCl electrolyte achieve 500 cycles without any capacity fade. Our post-mortem analysis using X-ray diffraction, secondary electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals that NiHCF dissolves upon repeated intercalation with Ca²⁺, releasing residual K⁺, Ni²⁺ and Fe(CN)₆³, which precipitates as a crystalline decomposition product on the electrodes. This side reaction deprives the active material NiHCF of charge compensating Fe, and thus accounts for the observed capacity fade.

see all

Series: Desalination
ISSN: 0011-9164
ISSN-E: 1873-4464
ISSN-L: 0011-9164
Volume: 517
Article number: 115218
DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2021.115218
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 841621.
EU Grant Number: (841621) TACOMA - Towards Application specific tailoring of CarbOn nanoMAterials
Copyright information: © 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license