University of Oulu

Hossain, K., Sabapathy, T., Jusoh, M. et al. A Frequency-Reconfigurable Microstrip Antenna with Constant Dipole-Like Radiation Patterns Using Single Bias, Triple Varactor Tuning with Reduced Complexity. Wireless Pers Commun 123, 1003–1024 (2022).

A frequency-reconfigurable microstrip antenna with constant dipole-like radiation patterns using single bias, triple varactor tuning with reduced complexity

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Author: Hossain, Kabir1,2; Sabapathy, Thennarasan1,2; Jusoh, Muzammil1,2;
Organizations: 1Advanced Communication Engineering (ACE), Centre of Excellence, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis, Malaysia
2Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis, Malaysia
3Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
4Centre of Excellence Advance Computing (AdvComp), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis, Malaysia
5James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-02-09


This work proposes a novel frequency-reconfigurable circular patch antenna incorporated with a rectangular slot and a narrow slot capable of producing constant dipole-like radiation patterns. The antenna compactness is achieved with the integration of the rectangular slot defected ground structure (DGS) on the ground. The proposed antenna is able to perform continuous frequency tuning between 1.91 and 2.77 GHz with a frequency ratio of 1.5:1, in addition to stable dipole-like radiation patterns. The resonant frequency of the antenna is controlled by tuning a simple DC biasing network that consists of three RF varactor diodes located on the narrow slot DGS. Implementing the DC biasing network at the narrow slot DGS while maintaining the large slot DGS helps the antenna miniaturization and maintains the constant dipole-like radiation pattern over all frequency tuning range. The results are validated via simulations and experimental validations in terms of reflection coefficients and the radiation patterns. Measurements indicated that an impedance bandwidth of 85 MHz is featured for each tuned frequency band, with dipole-like patterns and an average gain of 1.57 dBi.

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Series: Wireless personal communications
ISSN: 0929-6212
ISSN-E: 1572-834X
ISSN-L: 0929-6212
Volume: 123
Pages: 1003 - 1024
DOI: 10.1007/s11277-021-09167-8
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The author would like to acknowledge the support from the Short-Term Research Grant (Mentorship) under a grant number of 9001–00600 from the Universiti Malaysia Perlis.
Copyright information: © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Wireless Pers Commun. The final authenticated version is available online at