University of Oulu

Kimbi Yaah Velma Beri, Danns Pereira Barbosa, Mohamed Zbair, Satu Ojala, Sergio Botelho de Oliveira, Adsorption of Estradiol from aqueous solution by hydrothermally carbonized and steam activated palm kernel shells, Energy Nexus, Volume 1, 2021, 100009, ISSN 2772-4271,

Adsorption of Estradiol from aqueous solution by hydrothermally carbonized and steam activated palm kernel shells

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Author: Velma Beri, Kimbi Yaah1; Barbosa, Danns Pereira2; Zbair, Mohamed3;
Organizations: 1Environmental and Chemical engineering, Faculty of Technology, Linnanmaa, P.O. Box 4000 FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland
2Department of Mathematics and Physics, Pontifical Catholic University of Goiás
3Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse: IS2M, Mulhouse, France
4Department of Chemistry, Federal Institute of Goiás, Brazil
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-02-09


In this study, Ethinylestradiol was removed from aqueous solution (maximum removal 83.1%) by hydrothermally carbonized and steam activated carbon adsorbent prepared from palm kernel shells. The effects of varying adsorbent mass, pH, temperature and concentration of Ethinylestradiol on adsorption were studied. It was found that pseudo second order kinetic model is able to describe well the adsorption of Ethinylestradiol. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption process was mainly chemisorption as the calculated activation energy for adsorption was 60.4 KJmol⁻¹. Adsorption was considered to take place between the functional groups on the adsorbent and those on the Ethinylestradiol molecule. The characterization showed that adsorbent was mesoporous with specific surface area of 320 m²g⁻¹, it had several oxygen-containing functional groups, and defects in its graphitic structure (ID/IG ratio ∼ 2.2).

Novelty statement: High carbonization temperatures (300°C – 600°C) followed by high-temperature steam activation (600°C – 1000°C) have been used to prepare carbon adsorbents over the past decades. In this work, the novelty lies on lower processing temperatures. Hydrothermal carbonization realized at 200°C and following steam activation at 500°C will produce an efficient carbon adsorbent, which is shown in this study. The lower carbonization-activation temperatures produce adsorbents with higher amount of functional groups beneficial to adsorption, and decreases energy costs of the production.

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Series: Energy nexus
ISSN: 2772-4271
ISSN-L: 2772-4271
Volume: 1
Article number: 100009
DOI: 10.1016/
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was funded by the I4Future doctoral program, which has received funding from the EU H2020 under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant agreement No. 713606, and Academy of Finland via the ELECTRA project.
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (