University of Oulu

Hong, S., Yuan, Y., Li, P., Zhang, K., Lian, H., & Liimatainen, H. (2020). Enhancement of the nanofibrillation of birch cellulose pretreated with natural deep eutectic solvent. Industrial Crops and Products, 154, 112677.

Enhancement of the nanofibrillation of birch cellulose pretreated with natural deep eutectic solvent

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Author: Hong, Shu1,2; Yuan, Yang1; Li, Panpan2;
Organizations: 1College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China
2Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2022-02-10


In this study, we demonstrate a new bio-derived and non-toxic deep eutectic solvent composed of betaine hydrochloride (Bh) and glycerol (Gl) as a pretreatment medium for birch cellulose (Betula pendula) to prepare cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using microfluidization. The co-solvent could readily penetrate into cellulose to swell the fibrillar structure and weaken the interaction within the hydrogen bond network. Moreover, the cationization of glycerol and cellulose by betaine hydrochloride further enhances the swelling process. All of these effects promote the nanofibrillation of cellulose and reduce the energy demand in CNF production. A high CNF mass yield of up to 72.5 % was obtained through co-solvent pretreatment using a Bh-to-Gl mole ratio of 1:2 at 150 °C for 1 h. The mole amount of betaine hydrochloride was noted to affect the nanofibrillation process and stability of the CNF suspension. The obtained CNFs possessed a cationic charge of 0.05–0.06 mmol/g, a diameter of 17–20 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 67.7–74.4 %. The CNFs displayed good thermal stability comparable to that of the pristine cellulose. Thus, this study provides a green and efficient swelling strategy for producing CNFs with a low cationic charge density.

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Series: Industrial crops and products
ISSN: 0926-6690
ISSN-E: 1872-633X
ISSN-L: 0926-6690
Volume: 154
Article number: 112677
DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112677
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This research was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370567), the Doctorate Fellowship Foundation of Nanjing Forestry University, the National First-Class Disciplines, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Academy of Finland project “Bionanochemicals” (No. 298295).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 298295
Detailed Information: 298295 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http:/