University of Oulu

Gokulanathan, V., Arun, K., & Priyadharshini, P. (2021). Fresh and hardened properties of five non-potable water mixed and cured concrete: A comprehensive review. Construction and Building Materials, 309, 125089.

Fresh and hardened properties of five non-potable water mixed and cured concret : a comprehensive review

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Author: Venkatesan, Gokulanathan1; Kumar, Arun1; Perumal, Priyadharshini2
Organizations: 1School of Civil Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai 600127, Tamilnadu, India
2Fibre and Particle Engineering, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2023-10-07


Potable water is an essential component of concrete as it is actively involved in the hydration and setting of concrete. Due to overpopulation, urbanization, and lack of proper water resource management, the available freshwater does not meet the demand resulting in water scarcity. Globally half of the world’s population is expected to suffer from a lack of access to proper water by 2025. The cumulative water consumption for concrete production was 16.6 km³ annually. This review paper emphasizes the effects of mixing and curing of five alternate non-potable water such as seawater, wash water from ready mix concrete (RMC) plants, greywater, wastewater from the sewage treatment plants, and magnetized water on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete to enhance the sustainability in concrete industry. Based on the globally published (75 research articles until 2021), the effects of replacing potable water for mixing and curing of concrete with other sources are discussed in detail. The fresh and hardened properties of concrete mixed and/or cured with five non-potable water depends greatly on the salt concentration, total solids, treatment type and magnetization level.

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Series: Construction & building materials
ISSN: 0950-0618
ISSN-E: 1879-0526
ISSN-L: 0950-0618
Volume: 309
Article number: 125089
DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.125089
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
Funding: Waste to Wealth (W2W), Grant agreement ID: 839848.
EU Grant Number: (839848) W2W - Waste to Wealth (W2W): A total solution for municipal solid waste incinerated ash in geopolymer concrete
Copyright information: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license