University of Oulu

Nguyen T., Lovén L., Partala J., Pirttikangas S. (2021) The Intersection of Blockchain and 6G Technologies. In: Wu Y. et al. (eds) 6G Mobile Wireless Networks. Computer Communications and Networks. Springer, Cham.

The intersection of blockchain and 6G technologies

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Author: Nguyen, Tri1; Lovén, Lauri1; Partala, Juha1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-03-22


The fifth generation (5G) wireless networks are on the way to be deployed around the world. The 5G technologies target to support diverse vertical applications by connecting heterogeneous devices and machines with drastic improvements in terms of high quality of service, increased network capacity and enhanced system throughput. However, 5G systems still remain a number of security challenges that have been mentioned by researchers and organizations, including decentralization, transparency, risks of data interoperability, and network privacy vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the conventional techniques may not be sufficient to deal with the security requirements of 5G. As 5G is generally deployed in heterogeneous networks with massive ubiquitous devices, it is quite necessary to provide secure and decentralized solutions. Motivated from these facts, in this paper we provide a state-of-the-art survey on the integration of blockchain with 5G networks and beyond. In this detailed survey, our primary focus is on the extensive discussions on the potential of blockchain for enabling key 5G technologies, including cloud computing, edge computing, Network Function Virtualization, Network Slicing, and D2D communications. We then explore and analyse the opportunities that blockchain potentially empowers important 5G services, ranging from spectrum management, data sharing, network virtualization, resource management to interference management, federated learning, privacy and security provision. The recent advances in the applications of blockchain in 5G Internet of Things are also surveyed in a wide range of popular use-case domains, such as smart healthcare, smart city, smart transportation, smart grid and UAVs. The main findings derived from the comprehensive survey on the cooperated blockchain-5G networks and services are then summarized, and possible research challenges with open issues are also identified. Lastly, we complete this survey by shedding new light on future directions of research on this newly emerging area.

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Series: Computer communications and networks
ISSN: 1617-7975
ISSN-E: 2197-8433
ISSN-L: 1617-7975
ISBN: 978-3-030-72777-2
ISBN Print: 978-3-030-72776-5
Pages: 393 - 417
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-72777-2_18
Host publication: 6G mobile wireless network
Host publication editor: Wu, Yulei
Singh, Sukhdeep
Taleb, Tarik
Roy, Abhishek
Dhillon, Harpreet S.
Kanagarathinam, Madhan Raj
De, Aloknath
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Copyright information: © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Computer Communications and Networks. The final authenticated version is available online at