University of Oulu

Kurl, S., Jae, S. Y., Mäkikallio, T. H., Voutilainen, A., Hagnäs, M. J., Kauhanen, J., & Laukkanen, J. A. (2022). Exercise cardiac power and the risk of heart failure in men: A population-based follow-up study. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 11(2), 266–271.

Exercise cardiac power and the risk of heart failure in men : a population-based follow-up study

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Author: Kurl, Sudhir1; Jae, Sae Young2; Mäkikallio, Timo H.3;
Organizations: 1Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70210, Finland
2Department of Sports Informatics, College of Arts and Physical Education, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Republic of Korea
3Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu 90220, Finland
4Department of Internal Medicine, Lapland Central Hospital, Rovaniemi 96400, Finland
5Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä 40620, Finland
6Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä 40620, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-02-22


Background: Little is known about exercise cardiac power (ECP), defined as the ratio of directly measured maximal oxygen uptake with peak systolic blood pressure during exercise, on heart failure (HF) risk. We examined the association of ECP and the risk of HF.

Methods: This was a population-based cohort study of 2351 men from eastern Finland. The average time to follow-up was 25 years. Participants participated at baseline in an exercise stress test. A total of 313 cases of HF occurred.

Results: Men with low ECP (<9.84 mL/mmHg, the lowest quartile) had a 2.37–fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68–3.35, p<0.0001) hazards ratio of HF as compared with men with high ECP (>13.92 mL/mmHg, the highest quartile), after adjusting for age. Low ECP was associated with a 1.96-fold risk (95%CI: 1.38–2.78, p<0.001) of HF after additional adjustment for conventional risk factors. After further adjustment for left ventricular hypertrophy, the results hardly changed (hazards ratio=1.87, 95%CI: 1.31–2.66, p<0.001). One SD increase in ECP (3.16 mL/mmHg) was associated with a decreased risk of HF by 28% (95%CI: 17%–37%).

Conclusions: ECP provides a noninvasive and easily available measure from cardiopulmonary exercise tests in predicting HF. However, ECP did not provide additional value over maximal oxygen uptake.

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Series: Journal of sport and health science
ISSN: 2095-2546
ISSN-E: 2213-2961
ISSN-L: 2095-2546
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
Pages: 266 - 271
DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2020.02.008
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 315 Sport and fitness sciences
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Copyright information: © 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. (