University of Oulu

Viinikangas T., Khosrowabadi E., Kellokumpu S. (2021) N-Glycan Biosynthesis: Basic Principles and Factors Affecting Its Outcome. In: Pezer M. (eds) Antibody Glycosylation. Experientia Supplementum, vol 112. Springer, Cham.

N-glycan biosynthesis : basic principles and factors affecting its outcome

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Author: Viinikangas, Teemu1; Khosrowabadi, Elham1; Kellokumpu, Sakari1
Organizations: 1Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2023-10-23


Carbohydrate chains are the most abundant and diverse of nature’s biopolymers and represent one of the four fundamental macromolecular building blocks of life together with proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Indicative of their essential roles in cells and in multicellular organisms, genes encoding proteins associated with glycosylation account for approximately 2% of the human genome. It has been estimated that 50–80% of all human proteins carry carbohydrate chains—glycans—as part of their structure. Despite cells utilize only nine different monosaccharides for making their glycans, their order and conformational variation in glycan chains together with chain branching differences and frequent post-synthetic modifications can give rise to an enormous repertoire of different glycan structures of which few thousand is estimated to carry important structural or functional information for a cell. Thus, glycans are immensely versatile encoders of multicellular life. Yet, glycans do not represent a random collection of unpredictable structures but rather, a collection of predetermined but still dynamic entities that are present at defined quantities in each glycosylation site of a given protein in a cell, tissue, or organism.

In this chapter, we will give an overview of what is currently known about N-glycan synthesis in higher eukaryotes, focusing not only on the processes themselves but also on factors that will affect or can affect the final outcome—the dynamicity and heterogeneity of the N-glycome. We hope that this review will help understand the molecular details underneath this diversity, and in addition, be helpful for those who plan to produce optimally glycosylated antibody-based therapeutics.

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Series: Experientia supplementum
ISSN: 1664-431X
ISSN-E: 2504-3692
ISSN-L: 1664-431X
ISBN: 978-3-030-76912-3
ISBN Print: 978-3-030-76911-6
Issue: 112
Pages: 237 - 257
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-76912-3_7
Host publication: Antibody glycosylation
Host publication editor: Pezer, Marija
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
Copyright information: © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021.