University of Oulu

Graham, S.E., Clarke, S.L., Wu, KH.H. et al. The power of genetic diversity in genome-wide association studies of lipids. Nature 600, 675–679 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04064-3

The power of genetic diversity in genome-wide association studies of lipids

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Author: Graham, Sarah E.1; Clarke, Shoa L.2,3; Wu, Kuan-Han H.4;
Kanoni, Stavroula5; Zajac, Greg J. M.6,7; Ramdas, Shweta8; Surakka, Ida1; Ntalla, Ioanna9; Vedantam, Sailaja10,11; Winkler, Thomas W.12; Locke, Adam E.13,14; Marouli, Eirini5; Hwang, Mi Yeong15; Han, Sohee15; Narita, Akira16; Choudhury, Ananyo17; Bentley, Amy R.18; Ekoru, Kenneth18; Verma, Anurag8; Trivedi, Bhavi19; Martin, Hilary C.20; Hunt, Karen A.19; Hui, Qin21,22; Klarin, Derek23,24,25; Zhu, Xiang2,26,27,28; Thorleifsson, Gudmar29; Helgadottir, Anna29; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.29,30; Holm, Hilma29; Olafsson, Isleifur31; Akiyama, Masato32,33; Sakaue, Saori32,34,35; Terao, Chikashi36; Kanai, Masahiro25,32,37; Zhou, Wei4,38,39; Brumpton, Ben M.40,41,42; Rasheed, Humaira40,41; Ruotsalainen, Sanni E.43; Havulinna, Aki S.43,44; Veturi, Yogasudha45; Feng, QiPing46; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.47; Lingren, Todd48; Pacheco, Jennifer Allen49; Pendergrass, Sarah A.50; Haessler, Jeffrey51; Giulianini, Franco52; Bradford, Yuki45; Miller, Jason E.45; Campbell, Archie53,54; Lin, Kuang55,56; Millwood, Iona Y.55,56,57; Hindy, George58; Rasheed, Asif59; Faul, Jessica D.60; Zhao, Wei61; Weir, David R.60; Turman, Constance62; Huang, Hongyan62; Graff, Mariaelisa63; Mahajan, Anubha64; Brown, Michael R.65; Zhang, Weihua66,67,68; Yu, Ketian69; Schmidt, Ellen M.69; Pandit, Anita69; Gustafsson, Stefan70; Yin, Xianyong69; Luan, Jian'an71; Zhao, Jing-Hua72; Matsuda, Fumihiko73; Jang, Hye-Mi15; Yoon, Kyungheon15; Medina-Gomez, Carolina74,75; Pitsillides, Achilleas76; Hottenga, Jouke Jan77,78; Willemsen, Gonneke77,79; Wood, Andrew R.80; Ji, Yingji80; Gao, Zishan81,82,83; Haworth, Simon41,84; Mitchell, Ruth E.41,85; Chai, Jin Fang86,87; Aadahl, Mette88; Yao, Jie89; Manichaikul, Ani90; Warren, Helen R.91,92; Ramirez, Julia91; Bork-Jensen, Jette93; Karhus, Line L.88; Goel, Anuj64,94; Sabater-Lleal, Maria95,96; Noordam, Raymond97; Sidore, Carlo98; Fiorillo, Edoardo99; McDaid, Aaron F.100,101; Marques-Vidal, Pedro102,103; Wielscher, Matthias104; Trompet, Stella97,105; Sattar, Naveed106; Mollehave, Line T.88; Thuesen, Betina H.88; Munz, Matthias107,108,109,110,111,112; Zeng, Lingyao111,112,113; Huang, Jianfeng114,115; Yang, Bin114,115; Poveda, Alaitz116; Kurbasic, Azra116; Lamina, Claudia117,118; Forer, Lukas117,118; Scholz, Markus119,120; Galesloot, Tessel E.121; Bradfield, Jonathan P.122; Daw, E. Warwick123; Zmuda, Joseph M.124; Mitchell, Jonathan S.125; Fuchsberger, Christian125; Christensen, Henry126; Brody, Jennifer A.127; Feitosa, Mary F.123; Wojczynski, Mary K.123; Preuss, Michael128; Mangino, Massimo129,130; Christofidou, Paraskevi129; Verweij, Niek131; Benjamins, Jan W.131; Engmann, Jorgen132,133; Kember, Rachel L.134; Slieker, Roderick C.135,136; Lo, Ken Sin137; Zilhao, Nuno R.138; Phuong Le139; Kleber, Marcus E.140,141; Delgado, Graciela E.140; Huo, Shaofeng142; Ikeda, Daisuke D.143; Iha, Hiroyuki143; Yang, Jian144,145; Liu, Jun146; Leonard, Hampton L.147,148; Marten, Jonathan149; Schmidt, Borge150; Arendt, Marina150,151; Smyth, Laura J.152; Canadas-Garre, Marisa152; Wang, Chaolong153,154; Nakatochi, Masahiro155; Wong, Andrew156; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina157,158; Sim, Xueling86,87; Xia, Rui159; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia160; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos161; Lyssenko, Valeriya116,162; Ahmed, Meraj163; Jackson, Anne U.6,7; Irvin, Marguerite R.164; Oldmeadow, Christopher165; Kim, Han-Na166,167; Ryu, Seungho168,169; Timmers, Paul R. H. J.149,170; Arbeeva, Liubov171; Dorajoo, Rajkumar154; Lange, Leslie A.172; Chai, Xiaoran87,173,174; Prasad, Gauri175,176; Lores-Motta, Laura177; Pauper, Marc177; Long, Jirong178; Li, Xiaohui89; Theusch, Elizabeth179; Takeuchi, Fumihiko180; Spracklen, Cassandra N.181,182; Loukola, Anu43; Bollepalli, Sailalitha43; Warner, Sophie C.183,184; Wang, Ya Xing185,186; Wei, Wen B.186; Nutile, Teresa187; Ruggiero, Daniela187,188; Sung, Yun Ju189; Hung, Yi-Jen190; Chen, Shufeng114,115; Liu, Fangchao114,115; Yang, Jingyun191,192; Kentistou, Katherine A.170; Gorski, Mathias12,193; Brumat, Marco194; Meidtner, Karina195,196; Bielak, Lawrence F.61; Smith, Jennifer A.60,61; Hebbar, Prashantha197; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni198,199; Hofer, Edith200,201; Lin, Maoxuan202; Xue, Chao1; Zhang, Jifeng1; Concas, Maria Pina203; Vaccargiu, Simona204; van der Most, Peter J.205; Pitkanen, Niina206,207,208; Cade, Brian E.209,210; Lee, Jiwon209; van Der Laan, Sander W.211; Chitrala, Kumaraswamy Naidu212; Weiss, Stefan213; Zimmermann, Martina E.12; Lee, Jong Young214; Choi, Hyeok Sun215; Nethander, Maria216,217; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra218; Southam, Lorraine219,220; Rayner, Nigel W.20,64,219,221; Wang, Carol A.222; Lin, Shih-Yi223,224,225; Wang, Jun-Sing226,227; Couture, Christian228; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka229,230; Nikus, Kjell231,232; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel233; Vestergaard, Henrik93,234; Hildalgo, Bertha235; Giannakopoulou, Olga5; Cai, Qiuyin178; Obura, Morgan O.135; van Setten, Jessica236; Li, Xiaoyin237; Schwander, Karen123; Terzikhan, Natalie75; Shin, Jae Hun215; Jackson, Rebecca D.238; Reiner, Alexander P.239; Martin, Lisa Warsinger240; Chen, Zhengming55,56,57; Li, Liming241; Highland, Heather M.63; Young, Kristin L.63; Kawaguchi, Takahisa73; Thiery, Joachim120,242; Bis, Joshua C.127; Nadkarni, Girish N.128; Launer, Lenore J.243; Li, Huaixing142; Nalls, Mike A.147,148; Raitakari, Olli T.206,207,208,244; Ichihara, Sahoko245; Wild, Sarah H.246; Nelson, Christopher P.183,184; Campbell, Harry170; Jager, Susanne195,196; Nabika, Toru247; Al-Mulla, Fahd197; Niinikoski, Harri248,249,250; Braund, Peter S.183,184; Kolcic, Ivana251; Kovacs, Peter252; Giardoglou, Tota253; Katsuya, Tomohiro254,255; Bhatti, Fatima5; de Kleijn, Dominique256; de Borst, Gert J.256; Kim, Eung Kweon257; Adams, Hieab H. H.75,258; Ikram, M. Arfan75; Zhu, Xiaofeng237; Asselbergs, Folkert W.236; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan O.236; Beulens, Joline W. J.135,259; Shu, Xiao-Ou178; Rallidis, Loukianos S.260; Pedersen, Oluf93; Hansen, Torben93; Mitchell, Paul261,262; Hewitt, Alex W.263,264; Kahonen, Mika265,266; Perusse, Louis228,267; Bouchard, Claude268; Tonjes, Anke252; Chen, Yii-Der Ida89; Pennell, Craig E.222; Mori, Trevor A.269; Lieb, Wolfgang270; Franke, Andre271; Ohlsson, Claes216,272; Mellstrom, Dan216,273; Cho, Yoon Shin215; Lee, Hyejin274; Yuan, Jian-Min275,276; Koh, Woon-Puay277,278; Rhee, Sang Youl279; Woo, Jeong-Taek279; Heid, Iris M.12; Stark, Klaus J.12; Volzke, Henry280; Homuth, Georg213; Evans, Michele K.212; Zonderman, Alan B.212; Polasek, Ozren251; Pasterkamp, Gerard211; Hoefer, Imo E.211; Redline, Susan209,210; Pahkala, Katja206,207,208,281; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.282; Snieder, Harold205; Biino, Ginevra283; Schmidt, Reinhold200; Schmidt, Helena284; Chen, Y. Eugene1; Bandinelli, Stefania285; Dedoussis, George198; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse197; Kardia, Sharon L. R.61; Kato, Norihiro180; Schulze, Matthias B.195,196,286; Girotto, Giorgia194,203; Jung, Bettina193; Boger, Carsten A.193,287,288; Joshi, Peter K.170; Bennett, David A.191,192; De Jager, Philip L.289,290; Lu, Xiangfeng114,115; Mamakou, Vasiliki291,292; Brown, Morris92,293; Caulfield, Mark J.91,92; Munroe, Patricia B.91,92; Guo, Xiuqing89; Ciullo, Marina187,188; Jonas, Jost B.294,295,296; Samani, Nilesh J.183,184; Kaprio, Jaakko43; Pajukanta, Paivi297; Adair, Linda S.298,299; Bechayda, Sonny Augustin300,301; de Silva, H. Janaka302; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.303; Krauss, Ronald M.304,305; Wu, Jer-Yuarn306; Zheng, Wei178; den Hollander, Anneke, I177; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan176,307; Correa, Adolfo308; Wilson, James G.309; Lind, Lars310; Heng, Chew-Kiat311,312; Nelson, Amanda E.171,313; Golightly, Yvonne M.171,314,315,316; Wilson, James F.149,170; Penninx, Brenda79,317; Kim, Hyung-Lae318; Attia, John165,319; Scott, Rodney J.165,319; Rao, D. C.320; Arnett, Donna K.321; Walker, Mark322; Koistinen, Heikki A.323,324,325,326; Chandak, Giriraj R.163,327; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.328; Mercader, Josep M.329,330,331; Tusie-Luna, Teresa332,333,334; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.335,336,337; Villalpando, Clicerio Gonzalez338,339; Orozco, Lorena340; Fornage, Myriam159,341; Tai, E. Shyong86,87,342; van Dam, Rob M.86,87,342; Lehtimaki, Terho229,230; Chaturvedi, Nish156; Yokota, Mitsuhiro343; Liu, Jianjun154; Reilly, Dermot F.344; McKnight, Amy Jayne152; Kee, Frank152; Jockel, Karl-Heinz150; McCarthy, Mark, I50,64,345; Palmer, Colin N. A.346; Vitart, Veronique149; Hayward, Caroline149; Simonsick, Eleanor347; van Duijn, Cornelia M.146; Lu, Fan348; Qu, Jia348; Hishigaki, Haretsugu143; Lin, Xu142; Marz, Winfried140,349,350; Parra, Esteban J.139; Cruz, Miguel351; Gudnason, Vilmundur138,352; Tardif, Jean-Claude137,353; Lettre, Guillaume137,354; Elders, Petra J. M.355; Damrauer, Scott M.356,357; Kumari, Meena358; Kivimaki, Mika133; van der Harst, Pim131; Spector, Tim D.129; Loos, Ruth J. F.128,359; Province, Michael A.123; Psaty, Bruce M.360,361; Brandslund, Ivan126,362; Pramstaller, Peter P.125; Christensen, Kaare363; Ripatti, Samuli43,117,364,365; Widen, Elisabeth43; Hakonarson, Hakon366,367; Grant, Struan F. A.368,367,369; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.121; de Graaf, Jacqueline121; Loeffler, Markus119,120; Kronenberg, Florian117,118; Gu, Dongfeng114,115,370; Erdmann, Jeanette371,372; Schunkert, Heribert112,373; Franks, Paul W.116; Linneberg, Allan88,374; Jukema, J. Wouter105,375; Khera, Amit, V98,290,331,376,377; Männikkö, Minna378; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta104,379,380; Kutalik, Zoltan101,381; Cucca, Francesco98,382; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.383,384; van Dijk, Ko Willems385,386,387; Watkins, Hugh64,388; Strachan, David P.389; Grarup, Niels93; Sever, Peter390; Poulter, Neil391; Rotter, Jerome, I89; Dantoft, Thomas M.88; Karpe, Fredrik392,393; Neville, Matt J.392,393; Timpson, Nicholas J.41,85; Cheng, Ching-Yu173,394; Wong, Tien-Yin173,394; Khor, Chiea Chuen154; Sabanayagam, Charumathi173,394; Peters, Annette83,196,395; Gieger, Christian82,83,196; Hattersley, Andrew T.396; Pedersen, Nancy L.397; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.397; Boomsma, Dorret, I77,78,398; de Geus, Eco J. C.77,79; Cupples, L. Adrienne76,399; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.74,75; Ghanbari, Mohsen75,400; Rsen, Penny Gordon-La298,299; Huang, Wei401; Kim, Young Jin15; Tabara, Yasuharu73; Wareham, Nicholas J.71; Langenberg, Claudia71; Zeggini, Eleftheria219,220,402,403; Kuusisto, Johanna404,405; Laakso, Markku404,405; Ingelsson, Erik3,70,406,407; Abecasis, Goncalo69,408; Chambers, John C.66,67,409,410; Kooner, Jaspal S.67,68,390,411; de Vries, Paul S.65; Morrison, Alanna C.65; North, Kari E.63; Daviglus, Martha412; Kraft, Peter62,413; Martin, Nicholas G.414; Whitfield, John B.414; Abbas, Shahid59,415; Saleheen, Danish59,416,417; Walters, Robin G.55,56,57,418; Holmes, Michael, V55,56,57,419; Black, Corri420; Smith, Blair H.421; Justice, Anne E.422; Baras, Aris408; Buring, Julie E.52,329; Ridker, Paul M.52,329; Chasman, Daniel, I52,329; Kooperberg, Charles51; Wei, Wei-Qi423; Jarvik, Gail P.424; Namjou, Bahram425; Hayes, M. Geoffrey426,427,428; Ritchie, Marylyn D.45; Jousilahti, Pekka44; Salomaa, Veikko44; Hveem, Kristian40,429,430; Asvold, Bjorn Olav40,429,431; Kubo, Michiaki432; Kamatani, Yoichiro32,433; Okada, Yukinori32,34,434,435; Murakami, Yoshinori436; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur29,352; Stefansson, Kari29,352; Ho, Yuk-Lam437; Lynch, Julie A.438,439; Rader, Daniel J.368,440; Tsao, Philip S.2,3,441; Chang, Kyong-Mi440,442; Cho, Kelly437,443; O'Donnell, Christopher J.437,443; Gaziano, John M.437,443; Wilson, Peter444,445; Rotimi, Charles N.18; Hazelhurst, Scott17,446; Ramsay, Michele17,447,448; Trembath, Richard C.449; van Heel, David A.19; Tamiya, Gen16; Yamamoto, Masayuki16; Kim, Bong-Jo15; Mohlke, Karen L.181; Frayling, Timothy M.80; Hirschhorn, Joel N.10,11,450,451; Kathiresan, Sekar290,377,452; Boehnke, Michael6,7; Natarajan, Pradeep39,331,453,454,455; Peloso, Gina M.76; Brown, Christopher D.8; Morris, Andrew P.456; Assimes, Themistocles L.2,3,441; Deloukas, Panos5,92,457; Sun, Yan, V21,22; Willer, Cristen J.1,4,458
Organizations: 1Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Div Cardiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
2VA Palo Alto Hlth Care Syst, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA.
3Stanford Univ, Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
4Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
5Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London, England.
6Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
7Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
8Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Dept Genet, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
9Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, Clin Pharmacol, London, England.
10Boston Childrens Hosp, Endocrinol, Boston, MA USA.
11Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA.
12Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, Regensburg, Germany.
13Washington Univ, McDonnell Genome Inst, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.
14Washington Univ, Dept Med, St Louis, MO USA.
15Natl Inst Hlth, Dept Precis Med, Div Genome Sci, Cheongju, South Korea.
16Tohoku Univ, Tohoku Med Megabank Org, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
17Univ Witwatersrand, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney Brenner Inst Mol Biosci, Johannesburg, South Africa.
18NHGRI, Ctr Res Genom & GLobal Hearth, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
19Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, Blizard Inst, London, England.
20Wellcome Sanger Inst, Hinxton, England.
21Emory Univ, Rollins Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.
22Atlanta VA Hlth Care Syst, Decatur, GA USA.
23Malcolm Randall VA Med Ctr, Gainesville, FL USA.
24Univ Florida, Coll Med, Div Vasc Surg & Endovasc Therapy, Gainesville, FL USA.
25Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.
26Penn State Univ, Dept Stat, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
27Penn State Univ, Huck Inst Life Sci, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
28Stanford Univ, Dept Stat, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
29Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland.
30Univ Iceland, Sch Engn & Nat Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
31Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Clin Biochem, Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland.
32RIKEN, Lab Stat Anal, Ctr Integrat Med Sci, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
33Kyushu Univ, Grad Sch Med Sci, Dept Ophthalmol, Fukuoka, Japan.
34Osaka Univ, Dept Stat Genet, Grad Sch Med, Osaka, Japan.
35Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Allergy & Rheumatol, Tokyo, Japan.
36RIKEN, Lab Stat & Translat Genet, Ctr Integrat Med Sci, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
37Harvard Med Sch, Dept Biomed Informat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
38Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
39Broad Inst Harvard & MIT, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA.
40Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, KG Jebsen Ctr Genet Epidemiol, Dept Publ Hlth & Nursing, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
41Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England.
42Trondheim Reg & Univ Hosp, Dept Thorac Med, St Olavs Hosp, Trondheim, Norway.
43Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, HiLIFE, Helsinki, Finland.
44Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Publ Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
45Univ Penn, Inst Biomed Informat, Dept Genet, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
46Vanderbilt Univ Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Clin Pharmacol, Nashville, TN USA.
47Univ Washington, Dept Med Med Genet, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
48Cincinnati Childrens Hosp Med Ctr, Div Biomed Informat, Cincinnati, OH 45229 USA.
49Northwestern Univ, Ctr Genet Med, Evanston, IL USA.
50Genentech Inc, San Francisco, CA 94080 USA.
51Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, 1124 Columbia St, Seattle, WA 98104 USA.
52Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Prevent Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
53Univ Edinburgh, Western Gen Hosp, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
54Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
55Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.
56Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hearth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England.
57Univ Oxford, Med Res Council Populat Hlth Res Unit, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.
58Qatar Univ, Dept Populat Med, QU Hlth, Coll Med, Doha, Qatar.
59Ctr Noncommunicable Dis, Karachi, Pakistan.
60Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI USA.
61Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
62Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Program Genet Epidemiol & Stat Genet, Boston, MA USA.
63Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
64Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England.
65Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Human Genet Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Sch Publ Hlth, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
66Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
67London North West Univ Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Southall, Middx, England.
68Imperial Coll Healthcare NHS Trust, London, England.
69Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
70Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Mol Epidemiol & Sci Life Lab, Uppsala, Sweden.
71Univ Cambridge, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England.
72Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Strangeways Res Lab, Cambridge, England.
73Kyoto Univ, Ctr Genom Med, Grad Sch Med, Kyoto, Japan.
74Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Internal Med, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
75Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
76Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA.
77Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
78VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam Publ Hlth, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
79VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
80Univ Exeter, Univ Exeter Med Sch, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter, Devon, England.
81Nanjing Univ Chinese Med, Dept Clin Acupuncture & Moxibust, Nanjing, Peoples R China.
82Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Neuherberg, Germany.
83Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Neuherberg, Germany.
84Univ Bristol, Bristol Dent Sch, Bristol, Avon, England.
85Univ Bristol, Bristol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
86Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.
87Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore, Singapore.
88Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Ctr Clin Res & Prevent, Copenhagen, Denmark.
89Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Lundquist Inst Biomed Innovat, LABioMed, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci,Dept Pediat, Torrance, CA 90509 USA.
90Univ Virginia, Ctr Publ Hlth Genom, Charlottesville, VA USA.
91Queen Mary Univ London, John Vane Sci Ctr, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London, England.
92Queen Mary Univ London, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Biomed Res Ctr, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, London, England.
93Univ Copenhagen, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark.
94Univ Oxford, John Radcliffe Hosp, Radcliffe Dept Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Oxford, England.
95Hosp Santa Creu & St Pau IIB St Pau, Grp Genom Complex Dis, Res Inst, Barcelona, Spain.
96Karolinska Univ Hosp, Ctr Mol Med, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med,Cardiovasc Med Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
97Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Sect Gerontol & Geriatr, Leiden, Netherlands.
98Italian Natl Council Res IRGB CNR, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Cagliari, Italy.
99Italian Natl Council Res IRGB CNR, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Lanusei, Italy.
100Univ Lausanne, Univ Ctr Primary Care & Publ Hlth, Lausanne, Switzerland.
101Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Lausanne, Switzerland.
102Lausanne Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Internal Med, Lausanne, Switzerland.
103Univ Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
104Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
105Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Leiden, Netherlands.
106BHF Glasgow Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Fac Med, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
107Univ Lubeck, Univ Heart Ctr Lubeck, DZHK German Res Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Inst Cardiogenet,Partner Site Hamburg Lubeck Kiel, Lubeck, Germany.
108Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
109Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
110Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany.
111Berlin Inst Hlth, Inst Dent & Craniofacial Sci, Dept Periodontol & Synopt Dent, Berlin, Germany.
112Tech Univ Munich, Deutsch Herzzentrum Munchen, Klin Herz & Kreislauferkrankungen, Munich, Germany.
113Deutsch Zentrum Herz Kreislauf Forsch DZHK, Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany.
114Chinese Acad Med Sci & Peking Union Med Coll, Fuwai Hosp, Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Key Lab Cardiovasc Epidemiol,State Key Lab Cardio, Beijing, Peoples R China.
115Chinese Acad Med Sci & Peking Union Med Coll, Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Fuwai Hosp, State Key Lab Cardiovasc Dis,Dept Epidemiol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
116Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden.
117Med Univ Innsbruck, Inst Genet Epidemiol, Dept Genet & Pharmacol, Innsbruck, Austria.
118German Chron Kidney Dis Study, Innsbruck, Austria.
119Univ Leipzig, Inst Med Informat Stat & Epidemiol, Leipzig, Germany.
120Univ Leipzig, LIFE Res Ctr Civilizat Dis, Leipzig, Germany.
121Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
122Quantinuum Res, Wayne, PA USA.
123Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Div Stat Genom, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.
124Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Epidemiol, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA.
125Univ Lubeck, Affiliated Inst, Eurac Res, Inst Biomed, Bolzano, Italy.
126Lillebaelt Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, Vejle, Denmark.
127Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA.
128Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.
129Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London, England.
130Guys & St Thomas Fdn Trust, NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, London, England.
131Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, Groningen, Netherlands.
132UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London, England.
133UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
134Univ Penn, Dept Psychiat, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
135Amsterdam UMC, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
136Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cell & Chem Biol, Leiden, Netherlands.
137Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
138Iceland Heart Assoc, Reykjavik, Iceland.
139Univ Toronto Mississauga, Dept Anthropol, Mississauga, ON, Canada.
140Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Med 5, Mannheim, Germany.
141Synlab MVZ Humangenet Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
142Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Nutr & Hlth, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
143Otsuka Pharmaceut Co Ltd, Tokushima Res Inst, Biomed Technol Res Ctr, Tokushima, Japan.
144Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
145Wenzhou Med Univ, Inst Adv Res, Wenzhou, Peoples R China.
146Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.
147NIA, Lab Neurogenet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
148Data Tecn Int, Glen Echo, MD USA.
149Univ Edinburgh, Western Gen Hosp, Inst Genet & Canc, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
150Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometrie & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
151Univ Appl Sci & Arts Dortmund, Dept Comp Sci, Dortmund, Germany.
152Queens Univ Belfast, Ctr Publ Hlth, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
153Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Tongji Med Coll, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Wuhan, Peoples R China.
154Agcy Sci Technol & Res, Genome Inst Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
155Nagoya Univ, Dept Integrated Hlth Sci, Publ Hlth Informat Unit, Grad Sch Med, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.
156UCL, MRC Unit Lifelong Hlth & Ageing, London, England.
157Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Tampere, Finland.
158Tampere Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Technol, Dept Pediat, Tampere, Finland.
159Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, McGovern Med Sch, Brown Fdn Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
160UNAM, Dept Med Genom & Toxicol Ambiental, Inst Invest Biomed, Ciudad De Mexico, Mexico.
161Inst Nacl Med Genom, Dept Genom Computac, Ciudad De Mexico, Mexico.
162Univ Bergen, Ctr Diabet Res, Bergen, Norway.
163CSIR Ctr Cellular & Mol Biol, Genom Res Complex Dis GRC Grp, Hyderabad, India.
164Univ Alabama Birmingham, Sch Publ Hlth, Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
165Hunter Med Res Inst, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
166Sungkyunkwan Univ, Kangbuk Samsung Hosp, Med Res Inst, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea.
167Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Clin Res Design & Evaluat, SAIHST, Seoul, South Korea.
168Sungkyunkwan Univ, Kangbuk Samsung Hosp, Ctr Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Ctr,Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea.
169Sungkyunkwan Univ, Kangbuk Samsung Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea.
170Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
171Univ N Carolina, Thurston Arthrit Res Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
172Univ Colorado, Dept Med, Div Biomed Informat & Personalized Med, Anschutz Med Campus, Aurora, CO USA.
173Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Ocular Epidemiol, Singapore, Singapore.
174Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Ophthalmol, Singapore, Singapore.
175CSIR, Genom & Mol Med Unit, Inst Genom & Integrat Biol, New Delhi, India.
176Acad Sci & Innovat Res, CSIR Inst Genom & Integrat Biol Campus, New Delhi, India.
177Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Ophthalmol, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
178Vanderbilt Univ Sch Med, Vanderbilt Epidemiol Ctr, Div Epidemiol, Nashville, TN USA.
179Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Pediat, Oakland, CA USA.
180Natl Ctr Global Hlth & Med, Tokyo, Japan.
181Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
182Univ Massachusetts, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
183Univ Leicester, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
184Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Biomed Res Ctr, Leicester, Leics, England.
185Beijing Inst Ophthalmol, Beijing Key Lab Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
186Capital Med Univ, Beijing Tongren Hosp, Beijing Tongren Eye Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
187CNR, Inst Genet & Biophys Adriano Buzzati Traverso, Naples, Italy.
188IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Isernia, Italy.
189Washington Univ, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.
190Triserv Gen Hosp, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Songshan Branch, Taipei, Taiwan.
191Rush Univ Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL USA.
192Rush Univ Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL USA.
193Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, Regensburg, Germany.
194Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Trieste, Italy.
195German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbrucke, Dept Mol Epidemiol, Nuthetal, Germany.
196German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany.
197Dasman Diabet Inst, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Kuwait, Kuwait.
198Harokopio Univ Athens, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens, Greece.
199UCL, Dept Populat Sci & Expt Med, London, England.
200Med Univ Graz, Dept Neurol, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Graz, Austria.
201Med Univ Graz, Inst Med Informat Stat & Documentat, Graz, Austria.
202Univ N Carolina, Dept Bioinformat & Genom, Charlotte, NC USA.
203IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy.
204UOS Sassari, Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Sassari, Italy.
205Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands.
206Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland.
207Univ Turku, Ctr Populat Hlth Res, Turku, Finland.
208Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland.
209Brigham & Womens Hosp, Sleep Med & Circadian Disorders, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
210Harvard Med Sch, Div Sleep Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
211Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Labs Pharm & Biomed Genet, Cent Diagnost Lab, Utrecht, Netherlands.
212NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, Intramural Res Program, NIH,Biomed Res Ctr, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.
213Univ Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Dept Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany.
214Oneomics, Bucheon, South Korea.
215Hallym Univ, Dept Biomed Sci, Chunchon, South Korea.
216Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Ctr Bone & Arthrit Res, Inst Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
217Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Bioinformat Core Facil, Gothenburg, Sweden.
218Univ Kiel, Inst Med Informat & Stat, Kiel, Germany.
219Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Translat Genom, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Neuherberg, Germany.
220Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Hinxton, England.
221Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.
222Univ Newcastle, Coll Hlth Med & Wellbeing, Sch Med & Publ Hlth, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
223Taichung Vet Gen Hosp, Ctr Geriatr & Gerontol, Dept Internal Med, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Taichung, Taiwan.
224Natl Yang Ming Univ, Sch Med, Taipei, Taiwan.
225Natl Def Med Ctr, Sch Med, Taipei, Taiwan.
226Taichung Vet Gen Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Taichung, Taiwan.
227Natl Yang Ming Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Taipei, Taiwan.
228Univ Laval, Dept Kinesiol, Laval, PQ, Canada.
229Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland.
230Tampere Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Technol, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland.
231Tampere Univ Hosp, Heart Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Tampere, Finland.
232Tampere Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Technol, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Dept Cardiol, Tampere, Finland.
233Univ Queensland, Translat Res Inst, Diamantina Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
234Bornholms Hosp, Dept Med, Ronne, Denmark.
235Univ Alabama Birmingham, Sch Publ Hlth, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
236Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Cardiol, Utrecht, Netherlands.
237Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Populat & Quantitat Hlth Sci, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
238Ohio State Univ, Div Endocrinol, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
239Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
240George Washington Univ, Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
241Peking Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Hlth Sci Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
242Univ Hosp Leipzig, Inst Lab Med, Leipzig, Germany.
243NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.
244Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland.
245Jichi Med Univ, Dept Environm & Prevent Med, Sch Med, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.
246Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Populat Hlth Sci, Usher Inst, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
247Shimane Univ, Dept Funct Pathol, Sch Med, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.
248Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Turku, Finland.
249Univ Turku, Turku, Finland.
250Univ Turku, Dept Physiol, Turku, Finland.
251Univ Split, Fac Med, Split, Croatia.
252Univ Leipzig Med Ctr, Med Dept Endocrinol Nephrol Rheumatol 3, Leipzig, Germany.
253Harokopio Univ, Dept Nutr Dietet, Athens, Greece.
254Osaka Univ, Dept Clin Gene Therapy, Grad Sch Med, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
255Osaka Univ, Dept Geriatr & Gen Med, Grad Sch Med, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
256Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Vasc Surg, Div Surg Specialties, Utrecht, Netherlands.
257Yonsei Univ, Corneal Dystrophy Res Inst, Dept Ophthalmol, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea.
258Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
259Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands.
260Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Attikon Univ Hosp, Med Sch, Dept Cardiol 2, Athens, Greece.
261Univ Sydney, Ctr Vis Res, Dept Ophthalmol, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
262Univ Sydney, Westmead Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
263Univ Tasmania, Sch Med, Menzies Inst Med Res, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
264Univ Melbourne, Ctr Eye Res Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
265Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere, Finland.
266Tampere Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Technol, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere, Finland.
267Univ Laval, Inst Nutr & Funct Foods INAF, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
268Pennington Biomed Res Ctr, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 USA.
269Univ Western Australia, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Med Sch, Perth, WA, Australia.
270Univ Kiel, Inst Epidemiol, Kiel, Germany.
271Univ Kiel, Inst Clin Mol Biol, Kiel, Germany.
272Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Drug Treatment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
273Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Geriatr Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
274Ewha Womans Univ, Dept Internal Med, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea.
275Univ Pittsburgh, UPMC Hillman Canc Ctr, Div Canc Control & Populat Sci, Pittsburgh, PA USA.
276Univ Pittsburgh, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
277Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Hlth Longev Translat Res Programme, Singapore, Singapore.
278ASTAR, Singapore Inst Clin Sci, Singapore, Singapore.
279Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Sch Med, Seoul, South Korea.
280Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany.
281Univ Turku, Paavo Nurmi Ctr, Dept Phys Act & Hlth, Sports & Exercise Med Unit, Turku, Finland.
282Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands.
283Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Mol Genet, Pavia, Italy.
284Med Univ Graz, Gottfried Schatz Res Ctr Cell Signaling Metab & A, Graz, Austria.
285Toscana Ctr, Local Hlth Unit, Florence, Italy.
286Univ Potsdam, Inst Nutr Sci, Nuthetal, Germany.
287Traunstein Hosp, Dept Nephrol Diabetol Rheumatol, Traunstein, Germany.
288KfH Kidney Ctr Traunstein, Traunstein, Germany.
289Columbia Univ, Ctr Translat & Syst Neuroimmunol, Dept Neurol, Med Ctr, New York, NY USA.
290Broad Inst, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA.
291Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Med Sch, Athens, Greece.
292Dromokaiteio Psychiat Hosp, Athens, Greece.
293Queen Mary Univ London, William Harvey Res Inst, Clin Pharmacol, London, England.
294Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany.
295Capital Med Univ, Beijing Tongren Hosp, Beijing Tongren Eye Ctr, Beijing Inst Ophthalmol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
296Inst Mol & Clin Ophthalmol Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
297Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Dept Human Genet, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
298Univ N Carolina, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
299Univ N Carolina, Carolina Populat Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
300Univ San Carlos, USC Off Populat Studies Fdn, Cebu, Philippines.
301Univ San Carlos, Dept Anthropol Sociol & Hist, Cebu, Philippines.
302Univ Kelaniya, Fac Med, Dept Med, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
303Univ Kelaniya, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
304Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Pediat, San Francisco, CA USA.
305Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Med, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
306Acad Sinica, Inst Biomed Sci, Taipei, Taiwan.
307Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, Sch Biotechnol, Syst Genom Lab, New Delhi, India.
308Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Med, Jackson, MS 39216 USA.
309Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Jackson, MS 39216 USA.
310Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
311Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Paediat, Singapore, Singapore.
312Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Khoo Teck Puat Natl Univ Childrens Med Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
313Univ N Carolina, Dept Med, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
314Univ N Carolina, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
315Univ N Carolina, Injury Prevent Res Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
316Univ N Carolina, Div Phys Therapy, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
317Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
318Ewha Womans Univ, Coll Med, Dept Biochem, Seoul, South Korea.
319Univ Newcastle, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
320Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Biostat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.
321Univ Kentucky, Coll Publ Hlth, Lexington, KY USA.
322Newcastle Univ, Med Sch, Inst Cellular Med Diabet, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.
323Finnish Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Populat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
324Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
325Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Helsinki, Finland.
326Minerva Fdn, Helsinki, Finland.
327Acad Sci & Innovat Res AcSIR, New Delhi, India.
328KEM Hosp & Res Ctr, Diabetol Res Ctr, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
329Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
330Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Metab & Med, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.
331Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Diabet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
332Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Unidad Biol Mol & Med Genom, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
333UNAM, Inst Invest Biomed, Ciudad De Mexico, Mexico.
334Inst Invest Bimed UNAM, Unidad Biol Mol & Med Genom, Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
335Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Dept Endocrinol & Metabol, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
336Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Direcc Nutr, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
337Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Unidad Estudios Enfermedades Metab, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
338Inst Nacl Salud Publ, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
339Ctr Estudios Diabet, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
340Inst Nacl Med Genom, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
341Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Human Genet Ctr, Sch Publ Hlth, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
342Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Singapore, Singapore.
343Kurume Univ, Sch Med, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan.
344Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd, Kenilworth, NJ USA.
345Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.
346Univ Dundee, Ninwells Hosp & Med Sch, Populat Hlth & Genom, Dundee, Scotland.
347NIA, Intramural Res Program, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.
348Wenzhou Med Univ, Eye Hosp, Sch Ophthalmol & Optometry, Wenzhou, Peoples R China.
349Synlab Acad, Synlab, Mannheim, Germany.
350Med Univ Graz, Clin Inst, Med & Chem Lab Diagnost, Graz, Austria.
351Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Ctr Med Nacl Siglo 21, Hosp Especialidades, Unidad Invest Med Bioquim, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
352Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland.
353Univ Montreal, Dept Med, Fac Med, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
354Univ Montreal, Dept Med, Fac Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
355Amsterdam UMC, Dept Gen Practice & Elderly Care, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
356Univ Penn, Dept Surg, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
357Corporal Michael Crescenz VA Med Ctr, Philadelphia, PA USA.
358Univ Essex, Inst Social & Econ Res, Colchester, Essex, England.
359Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Mindich Child Hlth & Dev Inst, New York, NY 10029 USA.
360Univ Washington, Dept Med Epidemiol & Hlth Serv, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA.
361Kaiser Permanent Washington Hlth Res Inst, Seattle, WA USA.
362Univ Southern Denmark, Inst Reg Hlth Res, Odense, Denmark.
363Univ Southern Denmark, Danish Aging Res Ctr, Odense, Denmark.
364Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
365Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.
366Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Ctr Appl Genom, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
367Univ Penn, Dept Pediat, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
368Univ Penn, Dept Genet, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
369Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Div Human Genet, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
370Southern Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Med, Shenzhen, Peoples R China.
371Univ Lubeck, DZHK German Res Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Inst Cardiogenet, Partner Site Hamburg Lubeck Kiel, Lubeck, Germany.
372Univ Heart Ctr Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany.
373Deutsch Zentrum Herz Kreislauf Forsch DZHK eV, Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany.
374Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Clin Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
375Netherlands Heart Inst, Utrecht, Netherlands.
376Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Med, Div Cardiol, Boston, MA USA.
377Harvard Med Sch, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
378Univ Oulu, Fac Med, Infrastruct Populat Studies, Northern Finland Birth Cohorts, Oulu, Finland.
379Univ Oulu, Fac Med, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland.
380Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
381Univ Ctr Primary Care & Publ Hlth, Lausanne, Switzerland.
382Univ Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
383Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, Leiden, Netherlands.
384Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Leiden, Netherlands.
385Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Div Endocrinol, Leiden, Netherlands.
386Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Einthoven Lab Expt Vasc Med, Leiden, Netherlands.
387Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Leiden, Netherlands.
388Univ Oxford, John Radcliffe Hosp, Radcliffe Dept Med, Div OfCardiovasc Med, Oxford, England.
389St Georges Univ London, Populat Hlth Res Inst, London, England.
390Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, London, England.
391Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England.
392Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, OCDEM, Oxford, England.
393Churchill Hosp, NIHR Oxford Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England.
394Duke NUS Med Sch, Ophthalmol & Visual Sci Acad Clin Program Eye ACP, Singapore, Singapore.
395DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Munich Heart Alliance Partner Site, Munich, Germany.
396Univ Exeter, Univ Exeter Med Sch, Exeter, Devon, England.
397Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
398VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam Reprod & Dev Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
399NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study, US Natl Inst Hlth, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
400Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Mashhad, Iran.
401Chinese Natl Human Genome Ctr Shanghai, Dept Genet, Shanghai MOST Key Lab Hlth & Dis Genom, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
402Tech Univ Munich TUM, TUM Sch Med, Munich, Germany.
403Klinikum Rechts Der Isar, Munich, Germany.
404Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio, Finland.
405Kuopio Univ Hosp, Kuopio, Finland.
406Stanford Univ, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
407Stanford Univ, Stanford Diabet Res Ctr, Stanford, CA USA.
408Regeneron Pharmaceut, Tarrytown, NY USA.
409Nanyang Technol Univ, Lee Kong Chian Sch Med, Singapore, Singapore.
410Imperial Coll Healthcare NHS Trust, Imperial Coll London, London, England.
411Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England.
412Univ Illinois, Coll Med, Inst Minor Hlth Res, Chicago, IL USA.
413Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA.
414QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
415Faisalabad Inst Cardiol, Faislabad, Pakistan.
416Columbia Univ, Dept Med, Irving Med Ctr, New York, NY USA.
417Columbia Univ, Dept Cardiol, Irving Med Ctr, New York, NY USA.
418Univ Oxford, Big Data Inst, Oxford, England.
419Oxford Univ Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Oxford Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England.
420Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen Ctr Hlth Data Sci, Sch Med, Aberdeen, Scotland.
421Univ Dundee, Ninewells Hosp & Med Sch, Div Populat Hlth & Genom, Dundee, Scotland.
422Geisinger Hlth, Biomed & Translat Informat, Danville, PA USA.
423Vanderbilt Univ Sch Med, Dept Biomed Informat, Nashville, TN USA.
424Univ Washington, Med Ctr, Dept Med Med Genet, Seattle, WA USA.
425Cincinnati Childrens Hosp Med Ctr CCHMC, Ctr Autoimmune Genom & Etiol, Cincinnati, OH USA.
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427Northwestern Univ, Dept Anthropol, Evanston, IL 60208 USA.
428Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Ctr Genet Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
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432RIKEN Ctr Integrat Med Sci, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
433Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Frontier Sci, Dept Computat Biol & Med Sci, Lab Complex Trait Genom, Tokyo, Japan.
434Osaka Univ, WPI Immunol Frontier Res Ctr, Lab Stat Immunol, Osaka, Japan.
435Osaka Univ, Inst Open & Transdisciplinary Res Initiat, Integrated Frontier Res Med Sci Div, Osaka, Japan.
436Univ Tokyo, Inst Med Sci, Div Mol Pathol, Tokyo, Japan.
437VA Boston Healthcare Syst, Boston, MA USA.
438VA Salt Lake City Hlth Care Syst, VA Informat & Comp Infrastruct, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
439Univ Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125 USA.
440Univ Penn, Dept Med, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
441Stanford Univ, Cardiovasc Inst, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
442Corporal Michael J Crescenz VA Med Ctr, Philadelphia, PA USA.
443Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
444Atlanta VA Med Ctr, Atlanta, GA USA.
445Emory Univ, Sch Med, Div Cardiol, Atlanta, GA USA.
446Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Elect & Informat Engn, Johannesburg, South Africa.
447Univ Witwatersrand, Fac Hlth Sci, Natl Hlth Lab Serv, Div Human Genet, Johannesburg, South Africa.
448Univ Witwatersrand, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Pathol, Johannesburg, South Africa.
449Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci & Med, Sch Basic & Med Biosci, London, England.
450Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pediat, Boston, MA USA.
451Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA USA.
452Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Med, Ctr Genom Med, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
453Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Harvard Med Sch, Cardiol Div, Boston, MA USA.
454Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
455Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
456Univ Manchester, Ctr Genet & Genom Versus Arthrit, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, Div Musculoskeletal & Dermatol Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
457King Abdulaziz Univ, Princess Al Jawhara Al Brahim Ctr Excellence Res, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
458Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022030421914
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-06-09
Description:

Abstract

Increased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use1. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2, heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide3. Genome-wideassociation studies (GWAS) of blood lipid levels have led to important biological and clinical insights, as well as new drug targets, for cardiovascular disease. However, most previous GWAS4‐23 have been conducted in European ancestry populations and may have missed genetic variants that contribute to lipid-level variation in other ancestry groups. These include differences in allele frequencies, effect sizes and linkage-disequilibrium patterns24. Here we conduct a multi-ancestry, genome-wide genetic discovery meta-analysis of lipid levels in approximately 1.65 million individuals, including 350,000 of non-European ancestries. We quantify the gain in studying non-European ancestries and provide evidence to support the expansion of recruitment of additional ancestries, even with relatively small sample sizes. We find that increasing diversity rather than studying additional individuals of European ancestry results in substantial improvements in fine-mapping functional variants and portability of polygenic prediction (evaluated in approximately 295,000 individuals from 7 ancestry groupings). Modest gains in the number of discovered loci and ancestry-specific variants were also achieved. As GWAS expand emphasis beyond the identification of genes and fundamental biology towards the use of genetic variants for preventive and precision medicine25, we anticipate that increased diversity of participants will lead to more accurate and equitable26 application of polygenic scores in clinical practice.

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Series: Nature
ISSN: 0028-0836
ISSN-E: 1476-4687
ISSN-L: 0028-0836
Volume: 600
Issue: 7890
Pages: 675 - 679
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04064-3
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04064-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3111 Biomedicine
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Subjects:
Funding: Funding for the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium was provided by the NIH (R01-HL127564). This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource under application number 24460. Computing support and file management for central meta-analysis by S. Caron is acknowledged. This research is based on data from the MVP, Office of Research and Development, Veterans Health Administration, and was supported by awards 2I01BX003362-03A1 and 1I01BX004821-01A1. This publication does not represent the views of the Department of Veteran Affairs or the United States Government. Study-specific acknowledgements are provided in the Supplementary Information.
Copyright information: © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited 2021. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Nature. The final authenticated version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04064-3.