Valtonen, R.I.P., Hintsala, H.H.E., Kiviniemi, A. et al. Cardiovascular responses to dynamic and static upper-body exercise in a cold environment in coronary artery disease patients. Eur J Appl Physiol 122, 223–232 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04826-x
Cardiovascular responses to dynamic and static upper-body exercise in a cold environment in coronary artery disease patients
|Author:||Valtonen, Rasmus I. P.1,2; Hintsala, Heidi H. E.1,3; Kiviniemi, Antti4;|
1Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, 5000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Centria University of Applied Sciences, Kokkola, Finland
4Research Unit of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital, Dallas, USA
6Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
7Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
8Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022030722203
|Publish Date:|| 2022-03-07
Purpose: Upper-body exercise performed in a cold environment may increase cardiovascular strain, which could be detrimental to patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study compared cardiovascular responses of CAD patients during graded upper-body dynamic and static exercise in cold and neutral environments.
Methods: 20 patients with stable CAD performed 30 min of progressive dynamic (light, moderate, and heavy rating of perceived exertion) and static (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction) upper body exercise in cold (− 15 °C) and neutral (+ 22 °C) environments. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiographic (ECG) responses were recorded and rate pressure product (RPP) calculated.
Results: Dynamic-graded upper-body exercise in the cold increased HR by 2.3–4.8% (p = 0.002–0.040), MAP by 3.9–5.9% (p = 0.038–0.454) and RPP by 18.1–24.4% (p = 0.002–0.020) when compared to the neutral environment. Static graded upper-body exercise in the cold resulted in higher MAP (6.3–9.1%; p = 0.000–0.014), lower HR (4.1–7.2%; p = 0.009–0.033), but unaltered RPP compared to a neutral environment. Heavy dynamic exercise resulted in ST depression that was not related to temperature. Otherwise, ECG was largely unaltered during exercise in either thermal condition.
Conclusions: Dynamic- and static-graded upper-body exercise in the cold involves higher cardiovascular strain compared with a neutral environment among patients with stable CAD. However, no marked changes in electric cardiac function were observed. The results support the use of upper-body exercise in the cold in patients with stable CAD.
Trial registration: Clinical trial registration NCT02855905 August 2016.
European journal of applied physiology
|Pages:||223 - 232|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. The study was funded through grants from the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture (TI, RV, HH, AK) (CadColdEx OKM/84/626/2014, OKM/44/626/2015, OKM/31/626/2016, RV, HH, AK) and (ActiCard OKM/54/626/2019, OKM/85/626/2019, OKM/1096/626/2020, RV), Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation (TI, HH), Juho Vainio Foundation (RV).
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