University of Oulu

Zhang, ZX., Ouchterlony, F. Energy Requirement for Rock Breakage in Laboratory Experiments and Engineering Operations: A Review. Rock Mech Rock Eng 55, 629–667 (2022).

Energy requirement for rock breakage in laboratory experiments and engineering operations : a review

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Author: Zhang, Zong-Xian1; Ouchterlony, Finn2
Organizations: 1Oulu Mining School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Mining Engineering, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-03-07


Based on the review of a wide range of literature, this paper finds that: (1) the average specific surface energy of various single crystals is only 0.8 J/m². (2) The average specific fracture energy of the rocks with a pre-crack under static cleavage tests is 4.6 J/m². (3) The average specific fracture energy of the rocks with a pre-cut notch but with no pre-crack under static tensile fracture (mode I) tests is 4.6 J/m². (4) The average specific fracture energies of regular rock specimens with neither pre-made crack nor pre-cut notch are 26.6, 13.9 and 25.7 J/m² under uniaxial compression, tension and shear tests, respectively. (5) The average specific fracture energy of irregular single quartz particles under uniaxial compression is 13.8 J/m². (6) The average specific fracture energy of particle beds under drop weight tests is 74.0 J/m². (7) The average specific fracture energy of multi-particles in milling tests is 72.5 J/m². (8) The average specific energy of rocks in percussive drilling is 399 J/m³, that in full-scale cutting is 131 J/m³, and that in rotary drilling is 157 J/m³. (9) The average energy efficiency of milling is only 1.10%. (10) The accurate measurements of specific fracture energy in blasting are too few to draw reliable conclusions. In the last part of the paper, the effects of inter-granular displacement, loading rate, confining pressure, surface area measurement, premade crack, attrition and thermal energy on the specific fracture energy of rock are discussed.

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Series: Rock mechanics and rock engineering
ISSN: 0723-2632
ISSN-E: 1434-453X
ISSN-L: 0723-2632
Volume: 55
Issue: 2
Pages: 629 - 667
DOI: 10.1007/s00603-021-02687-6
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: The first author is grateful to K. H. Renlund Foundation in Finland for the support to this study.
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