University of Oulu

Akujärvi, V., Cedell, T., Gutnichenko, O. et al. Evolution of magnetic properties during tempering. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 119, 2329–2339 (2022).

Evolution of magnetic properties during tempering

Saved in:
Author: Akujärvi, Ville1; Cedell, Tord1; Gutnichenko, Oleksandr1;
Organizations: 1Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
2FMT-group, Kerttu Saalasti Institute, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-03-08


Quality control in heat treatment of steel is often conducted after the treatment. Failure to confine within the specified range of mechanical properties may lead to wasted energy and production resources. Performing quality control in-line in the heat treatment process allows for early detection and possibility to react to changes in the process. The prospects of utilizing the change in the electromagnetic (EM) properties of steel, as means for quality control, are investigated in this paper. The focus is on the tempering process of hardened SS2244 (42CrMoS4) steel. The tempering takes the hardness of the steel from approximately 600 HV down to around 400 HV. The EM signature of the steel is recorded during the tempering process. This is later compared with results from more traditional means of material characterization, such as laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Vickers microhardness measurement. This initial study shows clear indications of precise detection of the hardness through EM properties during the tempering process of selected material.

see all

Series: International journal of advanced manufacturing technology
ISSN: 0268-3768
ISSN-E: 1433-3015
ISSN-L: 0268-3768
Volume: 119
Pages: 2329 - 2339
DOI: 10.1007/s00170-021-08464-7
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
214 Mechanical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by Lund University. The research was made possible through funding from Vinnova in project InStruct—Induction heating with Structural feedback (2018-04292).
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit