University of Oulu

Aguilar, M., Cavasonza, L. A., Ambrosi, G., Arruda, L., Attig, N., Barao, F., Barrin, L., Bartoloni, A., Başeğmez-du Pree, S., Battiston, R., Behlmann, M., Beranek, B., Berdugo, J., Bertucci, B., Bindi, V., Bollweg, K., Borgia, B., Boschini, M. J., Bourquin, M., … AMS Collaboration. (2021). Periodicities in the daily proton fluxes from 2011 to 2019 measured by the alpha magnetic spectrometer on the international space station from 1 to 100 gv. Physical Review Letters, 127(27), 271102.

Periodicities in the daily proton fluxes from 2011 to 2019 measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station from 1 to 100 GV

Saved in:
Author: Aguilar, M.1; Cavasonza, L. Ali2,3; Ambrosi, G.4;
Arruda, L.5; Attig, N.6,7; Barao, F.5; Barrin, L.8; Bartoloni, A.9; Battiston, R.10,11; Behlmann, M.12; Beranek, B.2,3; Berdugo, J.1; Bertucci, B.4,13; Bindi, V14; Bollweg, K.15; Borgia, B.9,16; Boschini, M. J.17; Bourquin, M.18; Bueno, E. F.19; Burger, J.12; Burger, W. J.10; Burmeister, S.20; Cai, X. D.12; Capell, M.12; Casaus, J.1; Castellini, G.21; Cervelli, F.22; Chang, Y. H.23; Chen, G. M.24,25; Chen, G. R.26; Chen, H. S.24,25; Chen, Y.18,26; Cheng, L.26; Chou, H. Y.23; Chouridou, S.2,3; Choutko, V12; Chung, C. H.2,3; Clark, C.12,15; Coignet, G.27; Consolandi, C.14; Contin, A.28,29; Corti, C.14; Cui, Z.30,26; Dadzie, K.12; Dass, A.10,11; Delgado, C.1; Della Torre, S.17; Demirkoz, M. B.31; Derome, L.32; Di Falco, S.22; Di Felice, V33; Diaz, C.1; Dimiccoli, F.10; von Doetinchem, P.14; Dong, F.34; Donnini, F.33; Duranti, M.4; Egorov, A.12; Eline, A.12; Feng, J.12; Fiandrini, E.4,13; Fisher, P.12; Formato, V33; Freeman, C.14; Gamez, C.1; Garcia-Lopez, R. J.35,36; Gargiulo, C.8; Gast, H.2,3; Gervasi, M.17,37; Giovacchini, F.1; Gomez-Coral, D. M.14; Gong, J.34; Goy, C.27; Grabski, V38; Grandi, D.17,37; Graziani, M.4,13; Haino, S.23; Han, K. C.39; Hashmani, R. K.31; He, Z. H.40; Heber, B.20; Hsieh, T. H.12; Hu, J. Y.24,25; Incagli, M.22; Jang, W. Y.41; Jia, Yi12; Jinchi, H.39; Karagoz, G.31; Khiali, B.33; Kim, G. N.41; Kirn, Th2,3; Konyushikhin, M.12; Kounina, O.12; Kounine, A.12; Koutsenko, V12; Krasnopevtsev, D.12; Kuhlman, A.14; Kulemzin, A.12; La Vacca, G.17,37; Laudi, E.8; Laurenti, G.28; Lazzizzera, I10,11; Lebedev, A.12; Lee, H. T.42; Lee, S. C.23; Li, J. Q.34; Li, M.2,3; Li, Q.34; Li, S.2,3; Li, J. H.30; Li, Z. H.24,25; Liang, J.30; Light, C.14; Lin, C. H.23; Lippert, T.6,7; Liu, J. H.43; Liu, Z.18; Lu, S. Q.23; Lu, Y. S.24; Luebelsmeyer, K.2,3; Luo, J. Z.34; Luo, Xi26; Machate, F.2,3; Mana, C.1; Marin, J.1; Marquardt, J.20; Martin, T.12,15; Martinez, G.1; Masi, N.28,29; Maurin, D.32; Medvedeva, T.12; Menchaca-Rocha, A.38; Meng, Q.34; Mikhailov, V. V.44; Molero, M.1; Mott, P.12,15; Mussolin, L.4,13; Negrete, J.14; Nikonov, N.2,3; Nozzoli, F.10; Oliva, A.28; Orcinha, M.5; Palermo, M.14; Palmonari, F.28,29; Paniccia, M.18; Pashnin, A.12; Pauluzzi, M.4,13; Pensotti, S.17,37; Phan, H. D.12; Plyaskin, V12; Pohl, M.18; Poluianov, S.45,46; Qin, X.12; Qu, Z. Y.23; Quadrani, L.28,29; Rancoita, P. G.17; Rapin, D.18; Conde, A. Reina35,36; Robyn, E.18; Rosier-Lees, S.27; Rozhkov, A.12; Rozza, D.17,37; Sagdeev, R.47; Schael, S.2,3; von Dratzig, A. Schultz2,3; Schwering, G.2,3; Seo, E. S.48; Shakfa, Z.31; Shan, B. S.49; Siedenburg, T.2,3; Solano, C.12; Song, J. W.30; Song, X. J.26; Sonnabend, R.2,3; Strigari, L.9; Su, T.26; Sun, Q.30; Sun, Z. T.24,25; Tacconi, M.17,37; Tang, X. W.24; Tang, Z. C.24; Tian, J.4,13; Ting, Samuel C. C.12,8; Ting, S. M.12; Tomassetti, N.4,13; Torsti, J.50; Urban, T.12,15; Usoskin, I45,46; Vagelli, V.4,51; Vainio, R.50; Valencia-Otero, M.52,53; Valente, E.9,16; Valtonen, E.50; Vazquez Acosta, M.35,36; Vecchi, M.19; Velasco, M.1; Vialle, J. P.27; Wang, C. X.30; Wang, L.43,30; Wang, L. Q.30; Wang, N. H.30; Wang, Q. L.43; Wang, S.14; Wang, X.12; Wang, Yu30; Wang, Z. M.26; Wei, J.18; Weng, Z. L.12; Wu, H.34; Xiong, R. Q.34; Xu, W.30,26; Yan, Q.12; Yang, Y.54; Yashin, I. I.44; Yi, H.34; Yu, Y. M.12; Yu, Z. Q.24; Zannoni, M.17,37; Zhang, C.24; Zhang, F.24,25; Zhang, F. Z.24,25; Zhang, J. H.34; Zhang, Z.12; Zhao, F.24,25; Zheng, C.26; Zheng, Z. M.49; Zhuang, H. L.24; Zhukov, V2,3; Zichichi, A.28,29; Zuccon, P.10,11
Organizations: 1Ctr Invest Energet Medioambientales & Tecnol CIEM, Madrid 28040, Spain.
2Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
3Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, JARA FAME, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
4Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
5Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal.
6Julich Supercomp Ctr, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
7Res Ctr Julich, JARA FAME, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
8European Org Nucl Res CERN, CH-121123 Geneva, Switzerland.
9Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
10TIFPA INFN, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
11Univ Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
12MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
13Univ Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
14Univ Hawaii, Phys & Astron Dept, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
15NASA, Johnson Space Ctr JSC, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
16Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
17Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
18Univ Geneva, DPNC, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
19Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, POB 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
20Christian Alberts Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Angew Phys, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.
21CNR IROE, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
22Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.
23Acad Sinica, Inst Phys, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
24Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys IHEP, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
25Univ Chinese Acad Sci UCAS, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
26Shandong Inst Adv Technol SDIAT, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
27Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, LAPP IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.
28Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
29Univ Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
30Shandong Univ SDU, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
31Middle East Tech Univ METU, Dept Phys, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
32Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LPSC IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
33Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
34Southeast Univ SEU, Nanjing 210096, Peoples R China.
35Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, Tenerife 38205, Spain.
36Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain.
37Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
38Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Ciudad De Mexico 01000, Mexico.
39Natl Chung Shan Inst Sci & Technol NCSIST, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan.
40Sun Yat Sen Univ SYSU, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China.
41Kyungpook Natl Univ, CHEP, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
42Acad Sinica Grid Ctr ASGC, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
43Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Elect Engn IEE, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
44NRNU MEPhI Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia.
45Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Oulu 90014, Finland.
46Univ Oulu, Space Phys & Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland.
47Univ Maryland, East West Ctr Space Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
48Univ Maryland, IPST, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
49Beihang Univ BUAA, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
50Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Space Res Lab, Turku 20014, Finland.
51Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
52Natl Cent Univ NCU, Phys Dept, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
53Natl Cent Univ NCU, Ctr High Energy & High Field Phys, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
54Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: American Physical Society, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-03-21


We present the precision measurement of the daily proton fluxes in cosmic rays from May 20, 2011 to October 29, 2019 (a total of 2824 days or 114 Bartels rotations) in the rigidity interval from 1 to 100 GV based on 5.5 x 10⁹ protons collected with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer aboard the International Space Station. The proton fluxes exhibit variations on multiple timescales. From 2014 to 2018, we observed recurrent flux variations with a period of 27 days. Shorter periods of 9 days and 13.5 days are observed in 2016. The strength of all three periodicities changes with time and rigidity. The rigidity dependence of the 27-day periodicity is different from the rigidity dependences of 9-day and 13.5-day periods. Unexpectedly, the strength of 9-day and 13.5-day periodicities increases with increasing rigidities up to similar to 10 GV and similar to 20 GV, respectively. Then the strength of the periodicities decreases with increasing rigidity up to 100 GV.

see all

Series: Physical review letters
ISSN: 0031-9007
ISSN-E: 1079-7114
ISSN-L: 0031-9007
Volume: 127
Issue: 27
Article number: 271102
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.271102
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: We are grateful for important physics discussions with Jonathan Feng and Igor Moskalenko. We thank former NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin for his dedication to the legacy of the ISS as a scientific laboratory and his decision for NASA to fly AMS as a DOE payload. We also acknowledge the continuous support of the NASA leader-ship, particularly William H. Gerstenmaier, and of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) flight control teams that have allowed AMS to operate optimally on the ISS for ten years. We are grateful for the support of Jim Siegrist, Glen Crawford, and their staff of the DOE including resources from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We gratefully acknowledge the strong support from CERN including Fabiola Gianotti, and the CERN IT department including Bernd Panzer-Steindel, and from the European Space Agency including Johann-Dietrich Worner and Simonetta Di Pippo. We also acknowledge the continuous support from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its School of Science, Michael Sipser, and the Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Boleslaw Wyslouch. Research sup-ported by: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Institute of Electrical Engineering, China Academy of Space Technology, National Natural Science Foundation, and Ministry of Science and Technology, the China Scholarship Council, the provincial governments of Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong University, and the Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology, China; the Academy of Finland, Project No. 321882, Finland; CNRS/IN2P3 and CNES, France; DLR under Grants No. 50OO1805 and computing support on the JARA Partition of the RWTH Aachen supercomputer, Germany; INFN and ASI under ASI-INFN Agreements No. 2014-037-R.1-2017 and No. 2019-19-HH.0 and ASI-University of Perugia Agreement No. 2019-2-HH.0, Italy; CHEP and NRF under Grant No. NRF-2018R1A6A1A06024970 at Kyungpook National University, Korea; the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and UNAM, Mexico; NWO under Grant No. 680-1-004, Netherlands; FCT under Grant No. CERN/FIS-PAR/0013/2019, Portugal; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under ProjectNo. 0723-2020-0040, Russia; CIEMAT, IAC, CDTI, and SEIDI-MINECO under Grants No. PID2019-107988 GB-C21/C22, No. CEX2019-000920-S, and No. MDM-2015-0509, Spain; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) , federal and cantonal authorities, and the Fondation Dr. Manfred Steuer, Switzerland; Academia Sinica and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under Grants No. 107-2119-M-006-015-MY3, No. 109-2112-M-001-029, and No. CDA-105-M06, former Presidents of Academia Sinica Yuan-Tseh Lee and Chi-Huey Wong and former Ministers of MOST Maw-Kuen Wu and Luo-Chuan Lee, Taiwan; the Turkish Energy, Nuclear and Mineral Research Agency (TENMAK) under Grants No. 2020TAEK (CERN) A5.H1.F5-26, Turkey; and NSF Grants No. 1455202 and No. 2013228, Wyle Laboratories Grant No. 2014/T72497, and NASA NESSF Grant No. HELIO15F-0005, USA.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.