University of Oulu

Khan, I. S., Kauppila, O., Majava, J., Jurmu, M., Blech, J. O., Annanperä, E., Jurvansuu, M., & Pirttikangas, S. (2021). Industry 4.0 in Finland: Towards twin transition. In J. M. Muller & N. Kazantsev (Eds.), Industry 4.0 in SMEs across the globe: Drivers, barriers, and opportunities (pp. 13–27). CRC Press.

Industry 4.0 in Finland : towards twin transition

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Author: Khan, Iqra Sadaf1; Kauppila, Osmo1,2; Majava, Jukka1;
Organizations: 1Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Quality Technology and Logistics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
3VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Oulu, Finland
4Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
5M3S Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: CRC Press, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-01-03


In the global rankings of digitalization and Industry 4.0 maturity, Finland constantly places among the frontrunners. This study examines the path Finland has taken to reach the forefront, the drivers, and the current challenges and future opportunities related to Industry 4.0 and digitalization. This analysis is based on extensive experience in Industry 4.0-related ecosystem projects, policy documentation, and previous research. As Finland focuses on the export of high-value-added products and services, the early adoption of new technologies is vital and thus a key driver. Moreover, the national culture of innovation, R&D, and triple helix collaboration have driven Industry 4.0 implementation alongside a highly skilled workforce. However, multiple barriers hindering full Industry 4.0 utilization still exist, including SMEs’ hesitation to digitalize due to insufficient support mechanisms, an aging population, and the difficulty in finding single-source solutions. Respective future opportunities were found in areas such as smart sustainable manufacturing and ecosystems, enhanced SME involvement, lifelong learning, and the platform economy. Currently, Finland is moving from digitalization towards a twin transition and sustainable ecosystem-to-ecosystem collaboration. Practical early-stage examples of implementing this policy include the AI 4.0 and the Sustainable Industry X supercluster initiatives.

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ISBN: 978-1-003-16588-0
ISBN Print: 978-0-367-76190-5 978-0-367-76191-2
Pages: 13 - 28
DOI: 10.1201/9781003165880-3
Host publication: Industry 4.0 in SMEs across the globe : drivers, barriers, and opportunities
Host publication editor: Müller, Julian M.
Kazantsev, Nikolai
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 222 Other engineering and technologies
Copyright information: © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Julian M. Müller and Nikolai Kazantsev; individual chapters, the contributors. This is an Accepted Manuscript of a book chapter published by Routledge in Industry 4.0 in SMEs Across the Globe: Drivers, Barriers, and Opportunities on 31 Dec 2021, available online: