University of Oulu

The EHT MWL Science Working Group et al 2021 ApJL 911 L11. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abef71

Broadband multi-wavelength properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign

Saved in:
Author: Algaba, J. C.1; Anczarski, J.2; Asada, K.3;
Organizations: 1Univ Malaya, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
2Villanova Univ, Dept Phys, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
3Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F Astron Math Bldg,AS NTU 1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
4Yale Ctr Astron & Astrophys, 52 Hillhouse Ave, New Haven, CT 06511 USA.
5Yale Univ, Dept Phys, POB 2018120, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
6North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
7Grad Univ Adv Studies SOKENDAI, Dept Astron Sci, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan.
8Mizusawa VLBI Observ, 2-12 Hoshigaoka, Oshu, Iwate 0230861, Japan.
9Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
10INAF Ist Radioastron, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
11Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Math Astrophys & Particle Phys IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
12Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ Allegro, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
13McGill Univ, Dept Phys, 3600 Univ St, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada.
14McGill Univ, McGill Space Inst, 3550 Univ St, Montreal, PQ H3A 2A7, Canada.
15Boston Univ, Inst Astrophys Res, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
16St Petersburg Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Skij Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia.
17Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
18Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
19Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, Daedeok Daero 776, Daejeon 34055, South Korea.
20Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
21Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan.
22Kogakuin Univ Technol & Engn, Acad Support Ctr, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 1920015, Japan.
23Moscow Inst Phys & Technol, Inst Sky Per 9, Dolgoprudnyi 141700, Moscow Region, Russia.
24Lebedev Phys Inst, Astro Space Ctr, Profsouznaya 84-32, Moscow 117997, Russia.
25Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China.
26Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Radio Astron, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China.
27Univ Amsterdam, API Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
28Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA Gravitat & AstroParticle Phys Amsterdam, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
29Washington Univ, Phys Dept, CB 1105, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
30Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, POB 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
31Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Seoul 08826, South Korea.
32Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
33Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
34Univ Concepcion, Astron Dept, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.
35Univ Michigan, 1085 S Univ Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
36Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
37St Petersburg State Univ, 7-9 Univ Skaya Nab, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
38Russian Acad Sci, Special Astrophys Observ, Nizhnii Arkhyz 369167, Russia.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.6 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022032525382
Language: English
Published: IOP Publishing, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-03-25
Description:

Abstract

In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ∼6.5 × 10⁹ M. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilities in space and on the ground, to arrange an extensive, quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign. This Letter presents the results and analysis of this campaign, as well as the multi-wavelength data as a legacy data repository. We captured M87 in a historically low state, and the core flux dominates over HST-1 at high energies, making it possible to combine core flux constraints with the more spatially precise very long baseline interferometry data. We present the most complete simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrum of the active nucleus to date, and discuss the complexity and caveats of combining data from different spatial scales into one broadband spectrum. We apply two heuristic, isotropic leptonic single-zone models to provide insight into the basic source properties, but conclude that a structured jet is necessary to explain M87’s spectrum. We can exclude that the simultaneous γ-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton emission in the same region producing the EHT mm-band emission, and further conclude that the γ-rays can only be produced in the inner jets (inward of HST-1) if there are strongly particle-dominated regions. Direct synchrotron emission from accelerated protons and secondaries cannot yet be excluded.

see all

Collaborations

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration236

Kazunori Akiyama21,39,40, Antxon Alberdi41, Walter Alef20, Richard Anantua18,40,42, Rebecca Azulay20,43,44, Anne-Kathrin Baczko20, David Ball45, John Barrett39, Dan Bintley46, Bradford A. Benson47,48, Lindy Blackburn18,40, Raymond Blundell18, Wilfred Boland49, Katherine L. Bouman18,40,50, Geoffrey C. Bower51, Hope Boyce13,14, Michael Bremer52, Christiaan D. Brinkerink11, Roger Brissenden18,40, Silke Britzen20, Avery E. Broderick53,54,55, Dominique Broguiere52, Thomas Bronzwaer11, Do-Young Byun19,56, John E. Carlstrom48,57,58,59, Andrew Chael60,237, Chi-kwan Chan45,61, Shami Chatterjee62, Koushik Chatterjee63, Ming-Tang Chen51, Yongjun Chen (陈永军)25,26, Paul M. Chesler40, Ilje Cho19,56, Pierre Christian64, John E. Conway65, James M. Cordes62, Thomas M. Crawford48,57, Geoffrey B. Crew39, Alejandro Cruz-Osorio66, Jordy Davelaar11,42,67, Mariafelicia De Laurentis66,68,69, Roger Deane70,71,72, Jessica Dempsey46, Gregory Desvignes73, Jason Dexter74, Sheperd S. Doeleman18,40, Ralph P. Eatough20,75, Heino Falcke11, Joseph Farah18,40,76, Vincent L. Fish39, Ed Fomalont77, H. Alyson Ford78, Raquel Fraga-Encinas11, Per Friberg46, Christian M. Fromm18,40,66, Antonio Fuentes41, Peter Galison40,79,80, Charles F. Gammie81,82, Roberto García52, Olivier Gentaz52, Boris Georgiev54,55, Roman Gold53,83, José L. Gómez41, Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz84,85, Minfeng Gu (顾敏峰)25,86, Mark Gurwell18, Michael H. Hecht39, Ronald Hesper87, Luis C. Ho (何子山)88,89, Paul Ho3, Mareki Honma7,8,90, Chih-Wei L. Huang3, Lei Huang (黄磊)25,86, David H. Hughes84, Shiro Ikeda21,91,92,93, Makoto Inoue3, Sara Issaoun11, David J. James18,40, Buell T. Jannuzi45, Michael Janssen20, Britton Jeter54,55, Wu Jiang (江悟)25, Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales11, Michael D. Johnson18,40, Taehyun Jung19,56, Mansour Karami53,54, Ramesh Karuppusamy20, Mark Kettenis94, Dong-Jin Kim20, Jongsoo Kim19, Junhan Kim45,50, Jun Yi Koay3, Yutaro Kofuji8,90, Patrick M. Koch3, Shoko Koyama3, Michael Kramer20, Carsten Kramer52, Cheng-Yu Kuo3,95, Tod R. Lauer96, Aviad Levis50, Yan-Rong Li (李彦荣)97, Zhiyuan Li (李志远)98,99, Michael Lindqvist65, Rocco Lico41,20, Greg Lindahl18, Jun Liu (刘俊)20, Kuo Liu20, Elisabetta Liuzzo100, Wen-Ping Lo3,101, Andrei P. Lobanov20, Laurent Loinard102,103, Colin Lonsdale39, Nicholas R. MacDonald20, Jirong Mao (毛基荣)104,105,106, Nicola Marchili20,100, Daniel P. Marrone45, Alan P. Marscher15, Iván Martí-Vidal43,44, Satoki Matsushita3, Lynn D. Matthews39, Lia Medeiros45,107, Karl M. Menten20, Izumi Mizuno46, Yosuke Mizuno108,66, James M. Moran18,40, Kotaro Moriyama8,39, Monika Moscibrodzka11, Cornelia Müller11,20, Gibwa Musoke11,63, Alejandro Mus Mejías43,44, Hiroshi Nagai7,21, Neil M. Nagar34, Masanori Nakamura3,109, Ramesh Narayan18,40, Gopal Narayanan110, Iniyan Natarajan70,72,111, Antonios Nathanail66,112, Roberto Neri52, Chunchong Ni54,55, Aristeidis Noutsos20, Hiroki Okino8,90, Héctor Olivares11, Gisela N. Ortiz-León20, Tomoaki Oyama8, Feryal Özel45, Daniel C. M. Palumbo18,40, Nimesh Patel18, Ue-Li Pen53,113,114,115, Dominic W. Pesce18,40, Vincent Piétu52, Richard Plambeck116, Aleksandar PopStefanija110, Oliver Porth63,66, Felix M. Pötzl20, Ben Prather81, Jorge A. Preciado-López53, Dimitrios Psaltis45, Hung-Yi Pu3,53,117, Ramprasad Rao18, Mark G. Rawlings46, Alexander W. Raymond18,40, Luciano Rezzolla118,119,120, Angelo Ricarte18,40, Bart Ripperda42,121, Freek Roelofs11, Alan Rogers39, Eduardo Ros20, Mel Rose45, Arash Roshanineshat45, Helge Rottmann20, Alan L. Roy20, Chet Ruszczyk39, Kazi L. J. Rygl100, Salvador Sánchez122, David Sánchez-Arguelles84,85, Tuomas Savolainen20,123,124, F. Peter Schloerb110, Karl-Friedrich Schuster52, Lijing Shao20,89, Zhiqiang Shen (沈志强)25,26, Des Small94, Bong Won Sohn19,56,125, Jason SooHoo39, He Sun (孙赫)50, Fumie Tazaki8, Alexandra J. Tetarenko46, Paul Tiede54,55, Remo P. J. Tilanus11,12,45,126, Michael Titus39, Kenji Toma127,128, Pablo Torne20,122, Tyler Trent45, Efthalia Traianou20, Sascha Trippe31, Ilse van Bemmel94, Huib Jan van Langevelde94,129, Daniel R. van Rossum11, Jan Wagner20, Derek Ward-Thompson130, John Wardle131, Jonathan Weintroub18,40, Norbert Wex20, Robert Wharton20, Maciek Wielgus18,40, George N. Wong81, Qingwen Wu (吴庆文)132, Doosoo Yoon63, André Young11, Ken Young18, Ziri Younsi133,66,238, Feng Yuan (袁峰)25,86,134, Ye-Fei Yuan (袁业飞)135, J. Anton Zensus20, Guang-Yao Zhao41, Shan-Shan Zhao25

The Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

G. Principe10,32,33, M. Giroletti10, F. D’Ammando10, M. Orienti10

H.E.S.S. Collaboration

H. Abdalla6, R. Adam136, F. Aharonian137,138,139, F. Ait Benkhali138, E. O. Angüner140, C. Arcaro6,*, C. Armand141, T. Armstrong142, H. Ashkar143, M. Backes6,144, V. Baghmanyan145, V. Barbosa Martins146, A. Barnacka147, M. Barnard6, Y. Becherini148, D. Berge146, K. Bernlöhr138, B. Bi149, M. Böttcher6, C. Boisson150, J. Bolmont151, M. de Bony de Lavergne141, M. Breuhaus138, F. Brun143, P. Brun143, M. Bryan152, M. Büchele153, T. Bulik154, T. Bylund148, S. Caroff151, A. Carosi141, S. Casanova145,138, T. Chand6, A. Chen155, G. Cotter142, M. Curyło154, J. Damascene Mbarubucyeye146, I. D. Davids144, J. Davies142, C. Deil138, J. Devin156, P. deWilt157, L. Dirson158, A. Djannati-Ataï159, A. Dmytriiev150, A. Donath138, V. Doroshenko149, C. Duffy160, J. Dyks161, K. Egberts162, F. Eichhorn153, S. Einecke157, G. Emery151, J.-P. Ernenwein140, K. Feijen157, S. Fegan136, A. Fiasson141, G. Fichet de Clairfontaine150, G. Fontaine136, S. Funk153, M. Füßling146, S. Gabici159, Y. A. Gallant163, G. Giavitto146, L. Giunti143,159, D. Glawion153,*, J. F. Glicenstein143, D. Gottschall149, M.-H. Grondin156, J. Hahn138, M. Haupt146, G. Hermann138, J. A. Hinton138, W. Hofmann138, C. Hoischen162, T. L. Holch164, M. Holler165, M. Hörbe142, D. Horns158, D. Huber165, M. Jamrozy147, D. Jankowsky153, F. Jankowsky166, A. Jardin-Blicq138, V. Joshi153, I. Jung-Richardt153, E. Kasai144, M. A. Kastendieck158, K. Katarzyński167, U. Katz153, D. Khangulyan168, B. Khélifi159, S. Klepser146, W. Kluźniak161, Nu. Komin155, R. Konno146, K. Kosack143, D. Kostunin146, M. Kreter6, G. Lamanna141, A. Lemière159, M. Lemoine-Goumard156, J.-P. Lenain151, C. Levy151, T. Lohse164, I. Lypova146, J. Mackey137, J. Majumdar146, D. Malyshev149, D. Malyshev153, V. Marandon138, P. Marchegiani155, A. Marcowith163, A. Mares156, G. Martí-Devesa165, R. Marx166,138, G. Maurin141, P. J. Meintjes169, M. Meyer153, R. Moderski161, M. Mohamed166, L. Mohrmann153, A. Montanari143, C. Moore160, P. Morris142, E. Moulin143, J. Muller136, T. Murach146, K. Nakashima153, A. Nayerhoda145, M. de Naurois136, H. Ndiyavala6, F. Niederwanger165, J. Niemiec145, L. Oakes164, P. O’Brien160, H. Odaka170, S. Ohm146, L. Olivera-Nieto138, E. de Ona Wilhelmi146, M. Ostrowski147, M. Panter138, S. Panny165, R. D. Parsons164, G. Peron138, B. Peyaud143, Q. Piel141, S. Pita159, V. Poireau141, A. Priyana Noel147, D. A. Prokhorov152, H. Prokoph146, G. Pühlhofer149,*, M. Punch148,159, A. Quirrenbach166, R. Rauth165, P. Reichherzer143, A. Reimer165, O. Reimer165, Q. Remy138, M. Renaud163, F. Rieger138, L. Rinchiuso143, C. Romoli138, G. Rowell157, B. Rudak161, E. Ruiz-Velasco138, V. Sahakian171, S. Sailer138, D. A. Sanchez141,*, A. Santangelo149, M. Sasaki153, M. Scalici149, H. M. Schutte6, U. Schwanke164, S. Schwemmer166, M. Seglar-Arroyo143, M. Senniappan148, A. S. Seyffert6, N. Shafi155, K. Shiningayamwe144, R. Simoni152, A. Sinha159, H. Sol150, A. Specovius153, S. Spencer142, M. Spir-Jacob159, Ł. Stawarz147, L. Sun152, R. Steenkamp144, C. Stegmann146,162, S. Steinmassl138, C. Steppa162, T. Takahashi172, T. Tavernier143, A. M. Taylor146, R. Terrier159, D. Tiziani153, M. Tluczykont158, L. Tomankova153, C. Trichard136, M. Tsirou163, R. Tuffs138, Y. Uchiyama168, D. J. van der Walt6, C. van Eldik153, C. van Rensburg6, B. van Soelen169, G. Vasileiadis163, J. Veh153, C. Venter6, P. Vincent151, J. Vink152, H. J. Völk138, T. Vuillaume141, Z. Wadiasingh6, S. J. Wagner166, J. Watson142, F. Werner138, R. White138, A. Wierzcholska145,166, Yu Wun Wong153, A. Yusafzai153, M. Zacharias6,150, R. Zanin138, D. Zargaryan137,139, A. A. Zdziarski161, A. Zech150, S. J. Zhu146, J. Zorn138, S. Zouari159, N. Żywucka6

MAGIC Collaboration

V. A. Acciari173, S. Ansoldi174, L. A. Antonelli175, A. Arbet Engels176, M. Artero177, K. Asano178, D. Baack179, A. Babić180, A. Baquero181, U. Barres de Almeida182, J. A. Barrio181, J. Becerra González173, W. Bednarek183, L. Bellizzi184, E. Bernardini185, M. Bernardos186, A. Berti187, J. Besenrieder188, W. Bhattacharyya185, C. Bigongiari175, A. Biland176, O. Blanch177, G. Bonnoli184, Ž. Bošnjak180, G. Busetto186, R. Carosi189, G. Ceribella188, M. Cerruti190, Y. Chai188, A. Chilingarian191, S. Cikota180, S. M. Colak177, E. Colombo173, J. L. Contreras181, J. Cortina192, S. Covino175, G. D’Amico188, V. D’Elia175, P. Da Vela189,239, F. Dazzi175, A. De Angelis186, B. De Lotto174, M. Delfino177,240, J. Delgado177,240, C. Delgado Mendez192, D. Depaoli187, F. Di Pierro187, L. Di Venere193, E. Do Souto Espiñeira177, D. Dominis Prester194, A. Donini174, D. Dorner195, M. Doro186, D. Elsaesser179, V. Fallah Ramazani196, A. Fattorini179, G. Ferrara175, M. V. Fonseca181, L. Font197, C. Fruck188, S. Fukami178, R. J. García López173, M. Garczarczyk185, S. Gasparyan198, M. Gaug197, N. Giglietto193, F. Giordano193, P. Gliwny183, N. Godinović199, J. G. Green175, D. Green188, D. Hadasch178, A. Hahn188,†, L. Heckmann188, J. Herrera173, J. Hoang181, D. Hrupec200, M. Hütten188, T. Inada178, S. Inoue201, K. Ishio188, Y. Iwamura178, I. Jiménez192, J. Jormanainen196, L. Jouvin177, Y. Kajiwara202, M. Karjalainen173, D. Kerszberg177, Y. Kobayashi178, H. Kubo202, J. Kushida203, A. Lamastra175, D. Lelas199, F. Leone175, E. Lindfors196, S. Lombardi175, F. Longo174,241, R. López-Coto186, M. López-Moya181, A. López-Oramas173, S. Loporchio193, B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga182, C. Maggio197, P. Majumdar204, M. Makariev205, M. Mallamaci186, G. Maneva205, M. Manganaro194, K. Mannheim195, L. Maraschi175, M. Mariotti186, M. Martínez177, D. Mazin178,188,†, S. Menchiari184, S. Mender179, S. Mićanović194, D. Miceli174, T. Miener181, M. Minev205, J. M. Miranda184, R. Mirzoyan188, E. Molina190, A. Moralejo177, D. Morcuende181, V. Moreno197, E. Moretti177, V. Neustroev206, C. Nigro177, K. Nilsson196, K. Nishijima203, K. Noda178, S. Nozaki202, Y. Ohtani178, T. Oka202, J. Otero-Santos173, S. Paiano175, M. Palatiello174, D. Paneque188, R. Paoletti184, J. M. Paredes190, L. Pavletić194, P. Peñil181, C. Perennes186, M. Persic174,242, P. G. Prada Moroni189, E. Prandini186, C. Priyadarshi177, I. Puljak199, W. Rhode179, M. Ribó190, J. Rico177, C. Righi175, A. Rugliancich189, L. Saha181, N. Sahakyan198, T. Saito178, S. Sakurai178, K. Satalecka185, F. G. Saturni175, B. Schleicher195, K. Schmidt179, T. Schweizer188, J. Sitarek183, I. Šnidarić207, D. Sobczynska183, A. Spolon186, A. Stamerra175, D. Strom188, M. Strzys178, Y. Suda188, T. Surić207, M. Takahashi178, F. Tavecchio175, P. Temnikov205, T. Terzić194, M. Teshima178,188, L. Tosti208, S. Truzzi184, A. Tutone175, S. Ubach197, J. van Scherpenberg188, G. Vanzo173, M. Vazquez Acosta173, S. Ventura184, V. Verguilov205, C. F. Vigorito187, V. Vitale209, I. Vovk178, M. Will188, C. Wunderlich184, D. Zarić199

VERITAS Collaboration

C.B. Adams210, W. Benbow18, A. Brill211, M. Capasso210, J. L. Christiansen212, A. J. Chromey213, M. K. Daniel18, M. Errando214, K. A Farrell215, Q. Feng210, J. P. Finley216, L. Fortson217, A. Furniss218, A. Gent219, C. Giuri220, T. Hassan220, O. Hervet221, J. Holder222, G. Hughes18, T. B. Humensky211, W. Jin223,‡, P. Kaaret224, M. Kertzman225, D. Kieda226, S. Kumar13, M. J. Lang227, M. Lundy13, G. Maier220, P. Moriarty227, R. Mukherjee210, D. Nieto228, M. Nievas-Rosillo220, S. O’Brien13, R. A. Ong229, A. N. Otte219, S. Patel224, K. Pfrang220, M. Pohl230, R. R. Prado220, E. Pueschel220, J. Quinn215, K. Ragan13, P. T. Reynolds231, D. Ribeiro211, G. T. Richards222, E. Roache18, C. Rulten217, J. L. Ryan229, M. Santander223,‡, G. H. Sembroski216, R. Shang229, A. Weinstein213, D. A. Williams221, T. J Williamson222

EAVN Collaboration

Tomoya Hirota7,21, Lang Cui26,232, Kotaro Niinuma233, Hyunwook Ro19,125, Nobuyuki Sakai19, Satoko Sawada-Satoh233, Kiyoaki Wajima19, Na Wang26,232, Xiang Liu26,232, Yoshinori Yonekura234

1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Physics, Villanova University, 800 E. Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085, USA

3Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C.

4Yale Center for Astronomy & Astrophysics, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA

5Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 2018120, New Haven, CT 06520, USA

6Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa

7Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan

8Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, 2-12 Hoshigaoka, Mizusawa, Oshu, Iwate 023-0861, Japan

9525 Davey Laboratory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA

10INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy

11Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands

12Leiden Observatory—Allegro, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

13Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8, Canada

14McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3550 University Street, Montréal, QC H3A 2A7, Canada

15Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA

16Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg University, Universitetskij Pr. 28, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg, Russia

17Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582, Japan

18Center for Astrophysics, Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

19Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeok-daero 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea

20Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany

21National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan

22Kogakuin University of Technology & Engineering, Academic Support Center, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan

23Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutsky per. 9, Moscow region, Dolgoprudny, 141700, Russia

24Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsouznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997, Russia

25Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China

26Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, People’s Republic of China

27API—Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands

28GRAPPA—Gravitation and AstroParticle Physics Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands

29Physics Department, Washington University CB 1105, St Louis, MO 63130, USA

30Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

31Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea

32Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy

33Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy

34Astronomy Department, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile

35University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA

36Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan

37Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia

38Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Science, Nizhnii Arkhyz 369167, Russia

39Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, 99 Millstone Road, Westford, MA 01886, USA

40Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, 20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

41Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada, Spain

42Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA

43Departament d’Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, C. Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain

44Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, C. Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna, València, Spain

45Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

46East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA

47Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, MS209, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA

48Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

49Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA), P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

50California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

51Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA

52Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France

53Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5, Canada

54Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada

55Waterloo Centre for Astrophysics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 Canada

56University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea

57Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

58Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5720 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

59Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

60Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA

61Data Science Institute, University of Arizona, 1230 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

62Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

63Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

64Physics Department, Fairfield University, 1073 North Benson Road, Fairfield, CT 06824, USA

65Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala, Sweden

66Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany

67Department of Astronomy and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 W 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA

68Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Pancini”, Universitá di Napoli “Federico II,” Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy

69INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy

70Wits Centre for Astrophysics, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa

71Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, Pretoria 0028, South Africa

72Centre for Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies, Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Makhanda 6140, South Africa

73LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France

74JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA

75National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of China

76University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 William T. Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA 02125, USA

77National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA

78Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

79Department of History of Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

80Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

81Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

82Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

83CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark

84Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica. Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000. Puebla Pue., México

85Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, 03940, Ciudad de México, México

86Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China

87NOVA Sub-mm Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands

88Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China

89Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China

90Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

91The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo, 190-8562, Japan

92Department of Statistical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8562, Japan

93Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583, Japan

94Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE), Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands

95Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd, Kaosiung City 80424, Taiwan, R.O.C

96National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA

97Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

98School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China

99Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China

100Italian ALMA Regional Centre, INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy

101Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sect.4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C

102Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México

103Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx 04510, México

104Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China

105Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, People’s Republic of China

106Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, People’s Republic of China

107School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA

108Tsung-Dao Lee Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People’s Republic of China

109National Institute of Technology, Hachinohe College, 16-1 Uwanotai, Tamonoki, Hachinohe City, Aomori 039-1192, Japan

110Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 01003, Amherst, MA, USA

111South African Radio Astronomy Observatory, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa

112Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zografos, Greece

113Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada

114Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada

115Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada

116Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

117Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88, Sec. 4, Tingzhou Rd., Taipei 116, Taiwan, R.O.C.

118Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany

119Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany

120School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland

121Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA

122Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica, IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Local 20, E-18012, Granada, Spain

123Aalto University Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, PL 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland

124Aalto University Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Metsähovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylmälä, Finland

125Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea

126Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), Postbus 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag, The Netherlands

127Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan

128Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan

129Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 2300, 9513 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

130Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK

131Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA

132School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, People’s Republic of China

133Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK

134School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of China

135Astronomy Department, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, People’s Republic of China

136Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France

137Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland

138Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany

139High Energy Astrophysics Laboratory, RAU, 123 Hovsep Emin St Yerevan 0051, Armenia

140Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France

141Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France

142University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK

143IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

144University of Namibia, Department of Physics, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia

145Instytut Fizyki Ja̧drowej PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków, Poland

146DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany

147Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków, Poland

148Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, SE-351 95 Växjö, Sweden

149Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany

150Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Université de Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France

151Sorbonne Université, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies, LPNHE, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France

152GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands

153Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany

154Astronomical Observatory, The University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw, Poland

155School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, 2050 South Africa

156Université Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France

157School of Physical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia

158Universität Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany

159Université de Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, F-75013 Paris, France

160Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK

161Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland

162Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany

163Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France

164Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany

165Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria

166Landessternwarte, Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany

167Institute of Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun, Poland

168Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan

169Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa

170Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

171Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers St., 375036 Yerevan, Armenia

172Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8583, Japan

173Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and Dpto. Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain

174Università di Udine and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy

175National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), I-00136 Rome, Italy

176ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland

177Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain

178Japanese MAGIC Group: Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 Chiba, Japan

179Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany

180Croatian MAGIC Group: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER), 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

181IPARCOS Institute and EMFTEL Department, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain

182Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF), 22290-180 URCA, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil

183University of Lodz, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Department of Astrophysics, 90-236 Lodz, Poland

184Università di Siena and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy

185Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany

186Università di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova, Italy

187INFN MAGIC Group: INFN Sezione di Torino and Università degli Studi di Torino, I-10125 Torino, Italy

188Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany

189Università di Pisa and INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy

190Universitat de Barcelona, ICCUB, IEEC-UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain

191Armenian MAGIC Group: A. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory, Armenia

192Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, E-28040 Madrid, Spain

193INFN MAGIC Group: INFN Sezione di Bari and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica dell’Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70125 Bari, Italy

194Croatian MAGIC Group: University of Rijeka, Department of Physics, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia

195Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany

196Finnish MAGIC Group: Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland

197Departament de Física, and CERES-IEEC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain

198Armenian MAGIC Group: ICRANet-Armenia at NAS RA, Armenia

199Croatian MAGIC Group: University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), 21000 Split, Croatia

200Croatian MAGIC Group: Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Physics, 31000 Osijek, Croatia

201Japanese MAGIC Group: RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan

202Japanese MAGIC Group: Department of Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto, Japan

203Japanese MAGIC Group: Department of Physics, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, 259-1292 Kanagawa, Japan

204Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064, India

205Inst. for Nucl. Research and Nucl. Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria

206Finnish MAGIC Group: Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland

207Croatian MAGIC Group: Ruÿder Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

208INFN MAGIC Group: INFN Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy

209INFN MAGIC Group: INFN Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy

210Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027, USA

211Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA

212Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 94307, USA

213Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA

214Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA

215School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland

216Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

217School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

218Department of Physics, California State University—East Bay, Hayward, CA 94542, USA

219School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430, USA

220DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany

221Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA

222Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA

223Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA

224Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

225Department of Physics and Astronomy, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135-0037, USA

226Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA

227School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland

228Institute of Particle and Cosmos Physics, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain

229Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

230Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany and DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany

231Department of Physical Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland

232Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, People’s Republic of China

233Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677-1, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512, Japan

234Center for Astronomy, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan

see all

Series: Astrophysical journal letters
ISSN: 2041-8205
ISSN-E: 2041-8213
ISSN-L: 2041-8205
Volume: 911
Issue: 1
Article number: L11
DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abef71
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abef71
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Subjects:
Funding: J.-C.A acknowledges support from the Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6. M.B. acknowledges support from the YCAA Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, which is funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant GBMF8273) and in part by the John Templeton Foundation. S.C. is supported by the South African Research Chairs Initiative (grant No. 64789) of the Department of Science and Innovation and the National Research Foundation of South Africa. K.H. acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JJP18H03721, JP19H01943, JP18KK0090, and support from the Mitsubishi Foundation grant No. 201911019. D.H. acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery Grant and the Canada Research Chairs program. T.K. acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP18K13594, JP19H01908, JP19H01906, MEXT as "Program for Promoting Researches on the Supercomputer Fugaku" (Toward a unified view of the universe: from large scale structures to planets), MEXT as and Evolution of the Universe) and JICFuS. A part of the calculations were carried out on the XC50 at the Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. R.-S.L. is supported by the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS and acknowledges support from the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(grant No. 11933007) and the Research Program of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, CAS (grant No. ZDBS-LY-SLH011). M.L. and S.M. are thankful for support from an NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) VICI award, grant No. 639.043.513. J.N. acknowledges support from SAO award DD7-18089X and NASA award 80NSSC20K0645. J.P. acknowledges financial support from the Korean National Research Foundation (NRF) via Global PhD Fellowship grant 2014H1A2A1018695 and support through the EACOA Fellowship awarded by the East Asia Core Observatories Association, which consists of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute. M.S. acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP19K14761. The authors of the present Letter thank the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496, 315721); Agencia Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo von Humboldt Stiftung; the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico, projects 104497, 275201, 279006, 281692); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A.; Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM, project IN112417); the European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M110-005, 108-2112-M-001-048 and 109-2124-M-001-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC20K1567 and Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555, NuSTAR award 80NSSC20K0645, Chandra award DD7-18089X); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1715061, AST1615796, AST-1716327, OISE-1743747, AST-1816420, AST2034306); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11991053); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF2015H1A2A1033752, 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.; 513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI) of South Africa; the South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Innovation and National Research Foundation; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA201680889-P); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA 000001)); the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X; the GenT Program Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TGAST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (http://computeontario.ca), Calcul Quebec (http://www.calculquebec.ca) and Compute Canada observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. This Letter makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01154.V. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica.; The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. he LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofi ' sica, O ' ptica, y Electro ' nica financial support from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the National Science Foundation. The IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (MaxPlanck-Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with Hydrogen Masers. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHTspecific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people. The European VLBI Network is a joint facility of independent European, African, Asian, and North American radio astronomy institutes. Scientific results from data presented in this publication are derived from the following EVN project code: EH033. This research has made use of data obtained with 12 radio telescopes from the East Asian VLBI Network (EAVN): 2 stations from the Chinese VLBI Network (the Tianma radio telescope operated by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Nanshan radio telescope operated by Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory of CAS), 2 stations from the Japanese VLBI Network (the Hitachi station operated by Ibaraki University and the Kashima station operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology), the Korean VLBI Network operated by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), and the Nobeyama 45m radio telescope operated by NAOJ. We thank VERA staff members who helped the operation.; We are grateful to KVN staff who helped to operate the array and to correlate the data for quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of M87. The KVN is a facility operated by KASI. The KVN operations are supported by KREONET (Korea Research Environment Open NETwork), which is managed and operated by KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information) The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated by Associated Universities, Inc. This study has been supported in part by the Russian Science Foundation: project 20-62-46021. The Fermi LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in France. This work is performed in part under DOE Contract DEAC02-76SF00515. The support of the Namibian authorities and of the University of Namibia in facilitating the construction and operation of H.E.S.S. is gratefully acknowledged, as is the support by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), the Max Planck Society, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the Helmholtz Association, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the French Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/IN2P3 and CNRS/INSU), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA), the U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the National Science Centre, Poland grant No. 2016/22/M/ST9/00382, the South African Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation, the University of Namibia, the National Commission on Research, Science &Technology of Namibia Research and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), the Australian Research Council (ARC), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and by the University of Amsterdam. We appreciate the excellent work of the technical support staff in Berlin, Zeuthen, Heidelberg, Palaiseau, Paris, Saclay, Tubingen, and in Namibia in the construction and operation of the equipment. This work benefited from services provided by the H.E.S.S. Virtual Organisation, supported by the national resource providers of the EGI Federation. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma.; The financial support of the German BMBF, MPG and HGF; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (MICINN) (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA201782729-C6-5-R, FPA2017-90566-REDC, PID2019-104114RBC31, PID2019-104114RB-C32, PID2019-105510GB-C31,PID 2019-107847RB-C41, PID2019-107847RB-C42, PID2019107988GB-C22); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-268/16.12.2019 and the Academy of Finland grant No. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and CEX2019000920-S, and "Maria de Maeztu" CEX2019-000918-M, the Unidad de Excelencia "Maria de Maeztu" MDM-2015-050918-2 and the "la Caixa" Foundation (fellowship LCF/BQ/PI18/11630012) and by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya; by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02; by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3; the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382; and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. This research is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution, by NSERC in Canada, and by the Helmholtz Association in Germany. This research used resources provided by the Open Science Grid, which is supported by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, and resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We acknowledge the excellent work of the technical support staff at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and at the collaborating institutions in the construction and operation of the instrument. Facilities: ALMA, Chandra X-ray Observatory, EAVN, EHT, EVN, Fermi, GMVA, H.E.S.S., HSA, HST, KVN, MAGIC, Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, NuSTAR, SMA, VERA, VERITAS, VLBA.
Copyright information: © 2021. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.