University of Oulu

Choi, T., Devries, M., Bacharier, L. B., Busse, W., Camargo, C. A., Cohen, R., Demuri, G. P., Evans, M. D., Fitzpatrick, A. M., Gergen, P. J., Grindle, K., Gruchalla, R., Hartert, T., Hasegawa, K., Khurana Hershey, G. K., Holt, P., Homil, K., Jartti, T., Kattan, M., … Bochkov, Y. A. (2021). Enhanced neutralizing antibody responses to rhinovirus c and age-dependent patterns of infection. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 203(7), 822–830.

Enhanced neutralizing antibody responses to rhinovirus C and age-dependent patterns of infection

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Author: Choi, Timothy1; Devries, Mark1; Bacharier, Leonard B.2;
Organizations: 1Univ Wisconsin, K4-945 CSC 9988,600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792 USA.
2Washington Univ, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.
3Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
4Boston Univ, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
5Emory Univ, Dept Pediat, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.
6Childrens Healthcare Atlanta, Atlanta, GA USA.
7NIAID, NIH, Rockville, MD USA.
8Univ Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX USA.
9Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN 37235 USA.
10Cincinnati Childrens Hosp, Cincinnati, OH USA.
11Univ Western Australia, Telethon Kids Inst, Perth, WA, Australia.
12Univ Turku, Turku, Finland.
13Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
14Columbia Univ, New York, NY USA.
15Henry Ford Hlth Syst, Detroit, MI USA.
16Univ Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
17Rho Inc, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
18Univ Colorado, Denver, CO 80202 USA.
19Penn State Univ, Hershey, PA USA.
20Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
21George Washington Univ, Washington, DC USA.
22Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
23Northwestern Univ, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
24Univ Queensland, Child Hlth Res Ctr, South Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
25Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA.
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: American Thoracic Society, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-03-30


Rationale: Rhinovirus (RV) C can cause asymptomatic infection and respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to severe wheezing.

Objectives: To identify how age and other individual-level factors are associated with susceptibility to RV-C illnesses.

Methods: Longitudinal data from the COAST (Childhood Origins of Asthma) birth cohort study were analyzed to determine relationships between age and RV-C infections. Neutralizing antibodies specific for RV-A and RV-C (three types each) were determined using a novel PCR-based assay. Data were pooled from 14 study cohorts in the United States, Finland, and Australia, and mixed-effects logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the proportion of RV-C versus RV-A detection.

Measurements and Main Results: In COAST, RV-A and RV-C infections were similarly common in infancy, whereas RV-C was detected much less often than RV-A during both respiratory illnesses and scheduled surveillance visits (P < 0.001, χ²) in older children. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to RV-A or RV-C types was low (5–27%) at the age of 2 years, but by the age of 16 years, RV-C seropositivity was more prevalent (78% vs. 18% for RV-A; P < 0.0001). In the pooled analysis, the RV-C to RV-A detection ratio during illnesses was significantly related to age (P < 0.0001), CDHR3 genotype (P < 0.05), and wheezing illnesses (P < 0.05). Furthermore, certain RV types (e.g., C2, C11, A78, and A12) were consistently more virulent and prevalent over time.

Conclusions: Knowledge of prevalent RV types, antibody responses, and populations at risk based on age and genetics may guide the development of vaccines or other novel therapies against this important respiratory pathogen.

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Series: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
ISSN: 1073-449X
ISSN-E: 1535-4970
ISSN-L: 1073-449X
Volume: 203
Issue: 7
Pages: 822 - 830
DOI: 10.1164/rccm.202010-3753OC
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
3141 Health care science
Funding: Supported by the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes program, Office of The Director, NIH, under award numbers U2COD023375 (Coordinating Center), U24OD023382 (Data Analysis Center), U24OD023319 (Person-Reported Outcome [PRO] Core), UG3/UH3 OD023282, and UG3/UH3 OD-023253; NIH grants R01AI148707, P01 HL070831, UM1 AI114271, R01 AI-114552, R01 AI-127507, U19 AI095227, UL1 RR024975, and R01-AI097172; the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, Helsinki, Finland; National Health and Medical Research Council grants 211912, 458513; and by grants APP1045760, APP1087700, APP1129996, APP1147630.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the American Thoracic Society. The final authenticated version is available online at