Park, J., Choi, J.-Y., Choi, J., Chung, S., Song, N., Park, S. K., Han, W., Noh, D.-Y., Ahn, S.-H., Lee, J. W., Kim, M. K., Jee, S. H., Wen, W., Bolla, M. K., Wang, Q., Dennis, J., Michailidou, K., Shah, M., Conroy, D. M., … Kang, D. (2021). Gene-environment interactions relevant to estrogen and risk of breast cancer: Can gene-environment interactions be detected only among candidate snps from genome-wide association studies? Cancers, 13(10), 2370. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102370
Gene-environment interactions relevant to estrogen and risk of breast cancer : can gene-environment interactions be detected only among candidate SNPs from genome-wide association studies?
|Author:||Park, JooYong1,2; Choi, Ji-Yeob1,2,3,4; Choi, Jaesung3;|
1Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Biomed Sci, Grad Sch, Seoul 03080, South Korea.
2Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, BK21plus Biomed Sci Project, Seoul 03080, South Korea.
3Seoul Natl Univ, Med Res Ctr, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul 03080, South Korea.
4Seoul Natl Univ, Canc Res Inst, Seoul 03080, South Korea.
5Chungbuk Natl Univ, Coll Pharm, Cheongju 28160, South Korea.
6Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Coll Med, Seoul 03080, South Korea.
7Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Dept Surg, Seoul 03080, South Korea.
8Univ Ulsan Coll, Dept Surg, Med, Seoul 05505, South Korea.
9Univ Ulsan Coll, ASAN Med Ctr, Seoul 05505, South Korea.
10Natl Canc Ctr, Div Canc Epidemiol & Management, Goyang Si 10408, South Korea.
11Yonsei Univ, Inst Hlth Promot, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Seoul 03722, South Korea.
12Vanderbilt Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Med, Div Epidemiol, Nashville, TN 37232 USA.
13Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB2 0SR, England.
14Cyprus Inst Neurol & Genet, Biostat Unit, CY-2371 Nicosia, Cyprus.
15Cyprus Inst Neurol & Genet, Cyprus Sch Mol Med, CY-23462 Nicosia, Cyprus.
16Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.
17Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden.
18Soder Sjukhuset, Dept Oncol, S-11883 Stockholm, Sweden.
19Amer Canc Soc, Dept Populat Sci, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA.
20Mayo Clin, Dept Lab Med & Pathol, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.
21Mayo Clin, Dept Hlth Sci Res, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.
22Kings Coll London, Sch Canc & Pharmaceut Sci, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Guys Campus, London SE1 9RT, England.
23UCLH Fdn Trust, Dept Oncol, London NW1 2PG, England.
24Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Gen Populat Study, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.
25Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.
26Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
27Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Breast Surg, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.
28VIB Ctr Canc Biol, B-3001 Leuve, Belgium.
29Univ Leuven, Dept Human Genet, Lab Translat Genet, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
30Univ Leuven, Univ Hosp Leuven, KU Leuven, Dept Radiotherapy Oncol, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
31Aichi Canc Ctr Res Inst, Div Canc Epidemiol & Prevent, Nagoya, Aichi 4648681, Japan.
32Nagoya Univ, Div Canc Epidemiol, Grad Sch Med, Nagoya, Aichi 4668550, Japan.
33Univ Paris Saclay, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth CESP, Team Exposome & Hered, INSERM, F-94805 Villejuif, France.
34Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hosp, Div Mol Pathol, Netherlands Canc Inst, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
35Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hosp, Div Psychosocial Res & Epidemiol, Netherlands Canc Inst, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
36Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA.
37Univ Sheffield, Sheffield Inst Nucle Acids SInFoNiA, Dept Oncol & Metab, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
38Univ Sheffield, Acad Unit Pathol, Dept Neurosci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
39Mt Sinai Hosp, Fred A Litwin Ctr Canc Genet, Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Res Inst, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada.
40Univ Toronto, Dept Mol Genet, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.
41Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia.
42Monash Univ, Sch Clin Sci Monash Hlth, Precis Med, Clayton, Vic 3168, Australia.
43Univ Melbourne, Dept Clin Pathol, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia.
44Canc Council Victoria, Canc Epidemiol Div, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia.
45Acad Sinica, Taiwan Biobank, Inst Biomed Sci, Taipei 115, Taiwan.
46Acad Sinica, Inst Biomed Sci, Taipei 115, Taiwan.
47China Med Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Taichung 404, Taiwan.
48Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Hematol & Oncol, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
49Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nuremberg, Univ Hosp Erlangen, Dept Gynecol & Obstet, Comprehens Canc Ctr ER EMN, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
50Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nuremberg, Univ Hosp Erlangen, Inst Human Genet, Comprehens Canc Ctr Erlangen EMN, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
51Univ Manchester, Sch Hlth Sci, Div Populat Hlth Hlth Serv Res & Primary Care, Fac Biol Med & Hlth, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
52German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
53German Canc Res Ctr, Div Prevent Oncol, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
54Natl Ctr Tumor Dis NCT, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
55German Canc Res Ctr, German Canc Consortium DKTK, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
56Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, Sutton SM2 5NG, Surrey, England.
57Inst Canc Res, Div Breast Canc Res, London SW7 3RP, England.
58Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Inst Clin Pharmacol, D-70376 Stuttgart, Germany.
59Univ Tubingen, D-72074 Tubingen, Germany.
60Evangel Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Dept Internal Med, Johanniter Krankenhaus, D-53177 Bonn, Germany.
61Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore 117549, Singapore.
62Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore 117549, Singapore.
63Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Surg, Singapore 119228, Singapore.
64Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore 119228, Singapore.
65Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Dept Surg, Singapore 119228, Singapore.
66Genome Inst Singapore, Human Genet Div, Singapore 138672, Singapore.
67Univ Eastern Finland, Translat Canc Res Area, Kuopio 70210, Finland.
68Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Pathol & Forens Med, Kuopio 70210, Finland.
69Kuopio Univ Hosp, Biobank Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70210, Finland.
70Biomed Network Rare Dis CIBERER, Madrid 28029, Spain.
71Spanish Natl Canc Res Ctr CNIO, Human Canc Genet Programme, Madrid 28029, Spain.
72Hannover Med Sch, Gynaecol Res Unit, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.
73Hannover Med Sch, Dept Radiat Oncol, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.
74NN Alexandrov Res Inst Oncol & Med Radiol, Minsk 223040, BELARUS.
75Canc Res Malaysia, Breast Canc Res Programme, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia.
76Univ Malaya, Dept Surg, Fac Med, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
77Univ Malaya, Canc Res Inst, Breast Canc Res Unit, Fac Med, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
78Breast Canc Now Toby Robins Res Ctr, Inst Canc Res, London SW7 3RP, England.
79Univ Oulu, Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Oulu 90220, Finland.
80Univ Oulu, Canc & Translat Med Res Unit, Lab Canc Genet & Tumor Biol, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu 90570, Finland.
81Northern Finland Lab Ctr Oulu, Lab Canc Genet & Tumor Biol, Oulu 90570, Finland.
82Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Helsinki 00290, Finland.
83Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, S-70185 Orebro, Sweden.
84Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Helsinki 00290, Finland.
85Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
86Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Genet, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
87Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci & Educ, Sodersjukhuset, S-11883 Stockholm, Sweden.
88Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Med Genet, N-0450 Oslo, Norway.
89Univ Oslo, N-0450 Oslo, Norway.
90Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Fac Med, N-0372 Oslo, Norway.
91Leiden Univ, Dept Surg, Med Ctr, NL-2333 ZA Leiden, Netherlands.
92Erasmus MC, Canc Inst, Dept Med Oncol, NL-3015 CN Rotterdam, Netherlands.
93Fdn IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori INT, Dept Res, Unit Mol Bases Genet Risk & Genet Testing, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
94European Inst Oncol IRCCS, Div Canc Prevent & Genet, IEO, I-20141 Milan, Italy.
95German Canc Res Ctr, Mol Genet Breast Canc, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
96City Hope Natl Med Ctr, Dept Computat & Quantitat Med, Duarte, CA 91010 USA.
97City Hope Natl Med Ctr, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Duarte, CA 91010 USA.
98Univ Calif San Diego, Moores Canc Ctr, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.
99Univ Calif San Diego, Herbert Wertheim Sch Publ Hlth & Longev Sci, La Jolla, CA 92161 USA.
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022040827867
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute,
|Publish Date:|| 2022-04-08
In this study we aim to examine gene–environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.2 × 10−3). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.1 × 10−4). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
This study was supported by the Seoul National University Hospital Innovation Programme (grant numbers 634935 and 633784 for BRIDGES and B-CAST, respectively), and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement number 223175 (grant number HEALTH-F2-2009-223175) (COGS). The EU Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme funding source had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. Genotyping of the OncoArray was funded by the NIH grant U19 CA148065, and Cancer UK grant C1287/A16563 and the PERSPECTIVE project supported by the Government of Canada through Genome Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant GPH-129344), and the Ministere de l'Economie, Science et Innovation du Quebec through Genome Quebec and the PSRSIIRI-701 grant, and the Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation. Funding for the iCOGS infrastructure came from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 223175 C1287/A10710, C12292/A11174, C1281/A12014, C5047/A8384, C5047/A15007, C5047/A10692, and C8197/A16565), the National Institutes of Health CA148065, and 1U19 CA148112 the GAME-ON initiative), the Department of Defence (W81XWH-10-1-0341), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Foundation for the Cure, the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, and the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund. The DRIVE Consortium was funded by U19 CA148065. The Australian Breast Cancer Family Study (ABCFS) was supported by grant UM1 CA164920 from the National Cancer Institute views or policies of the National Cancer Institute or any of the collaborating centers in the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government or the BCFR. The ABCFS was also supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the New South Wales Cancer Council, the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (Australia), and the Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium. J.L.H. is a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Senior Principal Research Fellow. M.C.S. is a NHMRC Senior Research Fellow. The ABCS study was supported by the Dutch Cancer Society (grants NKI 2007-3839 and 2009 4363). The ACP study is funded by the Breast Cancer Research Trust, UK. K.M. and A.L. are supported by the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, the Allan Turing Institute under the EPSRC grant EP/N510129/1. The work of the BBCC was partly funded by ELAN-Fond of the University Hospital of Erlangen. The BBCS is funded by Cancer Research UK and Breast Cancer Now and acknowledges NHS funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, and the National Cancer Research Network (NCRN). The CECILE study was supported by the Fondation de France, Institut National du Cancer (INCa), the Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire, de l'Alimentation, de l'Environnement et du Travail (ANSES), and the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR).; The CGPS was supported by the Chief Physician Johan Boserup and Lise Boserup Fund, the Danish Medical Research Council, and Herlev and Gentofte Hospital. The CNIO-BCS was supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, the Red Tematica de Investigacion Cooperativa en Cancer, and grants from the Asociacion Espanola Contra el Cancer and the Fondo de Investigacion Sanitario creation, maintenance, and updating of the CPS-II cohort. The California Teachers Study and the research reported in this publication were supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers U01-CA199277, P30-CA033572, P30-CA023100, UM1-CA164917, and R01CA077398. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health. The collection of cancer incidence data used in the California Teachers Study was supported by the California Department of Public Health pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Section 103885; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries, under cooperative agreement 5NU58DP006344; the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract HHSN261201800032I awarded to the University of California, San Francisco; contract HHSN261201800015I awarded to the University of Southern California; and contract HHSN261201800009I awarded to the Public Health Institute. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the State of California, Department of Public Health, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their Contractors and Subcontractors, or the Regents of the University of California or any of its programs. The ESTHER study was supported by a grant from the Baden Wurttemberg Ministry of Science, Research and Arts. Additional cases were recruited in the context of the VERDI study, which was supported by a grant from the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe). The GENICA was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Germany grants 01KW9975/5, 01KW9976/8, 01KW9977/0, and 01KW0114, the Robert Bosch Foundation, Stuttgart, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg, the Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, as well as the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany. GLACIER was supported by Breast Cancer Now, CRUK and Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London. The HEBCS was financially supported by the Helsinki University Hospital Research Fund, the Finnish Cancer Society, and the Sigrid Juselius Foundation. The HERPACC was supported by MEXT Kakenhi (no.; 170150181 and 26253041) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Culture and Technology of Japan, by a Grant-in-Aid for the Third Term Comprehensive 10-Year Strategy for Cancer Control from Ministry Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan, by Health and Labour Sciences Research Grants for Research on Applying Health Technology from the Ministry Health of Labour and Welfare of Japan, by National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund, and "Practical Research for Innovative Cancer Control Research and development, AMED, and Cancer Bio Bank Aichi. The HMBCS was supported by a grant from the German Research Foundation (Do 761/10-1). ICICLE was supported by Breast Cancer Now, CRUK, and Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' N.H.S. Foundation Trust and King's College London. Financial support for KARBAC was provided through the regional agreement on medical training and clinical research (ALF) between Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet, the Swedish Cancer Society, The Gustav V Jubilee foundation, and Bert von Kantzows foundation. The KARMA study was supported by Marit and Hans Rausings Initiative Against Breast Cancer. The KBCP was financially supported by the special Government Funding (VTR) of Kuopio University Hospital grants, Cancer Fund of North Savo, the Finnish Cancer Organizations, and by the strategic funding of the University of Eastern Finland. kConFab is supported by a grant from the National Breast Cancer Foundation, and previously by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Queensland Cancer Fund, the Cancer Councils of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, and the Cancer Foundation of Western Australia. Financial support for the AOCS was provided by the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Cancer Council New South Wales, Cancer Council South Australia, The Cancer Foundation ofWestern Australia, Cancer Council Tasmania, and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) NHMRC. R.B was a Cancer Institute NSW Clinical Research Fellow. Clinical Follow Up Study has received funding from the NHMRC, the National Breast Cancer Foundation, Cancer Australia, and the National Institute of Health (USA). LAABC is supported by grants (1RB-0287, 3PB-0102, 5PB-0018, 10PB-0098) from the California Breast Cancer Research Program. Incident breast cancer cases were collected by the USC Cancer Surveillance Program (CSP) which is supported under subcontract by the California Department of Health. The CSP is also part of the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, under contract number N01CN25403. LMBC is supported by the `Stichting tegen Kanker'. D.L. is supported by the FWO. The MARIE study was supported by the Deutsche Krebshilfe e.V. (70-2892-BR I, 106332, 108253, 108419, 110826, and 110828), the Hamburg Cancer Society, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Germany (01KH0402). MBCSG is supported by grants from the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC).; The MCBCS was supported by the NIH grants R35CA253187, R01CA192393, R01CA116167, and R01CA176785 an NIH Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) cohort recruitment was funded by VicHealth and Cancer Council Victoria. The MCCS was further augmented by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council grants 209057, 396414, and 1074383 and by infrastructure provided by Cancer Council Victoria. Cases and their vital status were ascertained through the Victorian Cancer Registry and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, including the National Death Index and the Australian Cancer Database. The MEC was supported by NIH grants CA63464, CA54281, CA098758, CA132839, and CA164973. MYBRCA is funded by research grants from the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (UM.C/HlR/MOHE/06) and Cancer Research Malaysia. MYMAMMO is supported by research grants from Yayasan Sime Darby LPGA Tournament and Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (RP046B-15HTM). The NBCS has received funding from the K.G. Jebsen Centre for Breast Cancer Research, the Research Council of Norway grant 193387/V50 (to A-L Borresen-Dale and V.N. Kristensen) and grant 193387/H10 (to A-L Borresen-Dale and V.N. Kristensen), South Eastern Norway Health Authority (grant 39346 to A-L Borresen-Dale), and the Norwegian Cancer Society (to A-L Borresen-Dale and V.N. Kristensen). The NBHS was supported by NIH grant R01CA100374. Biological sample preparation was conducted by the Survey and Biospecimen Shared Resource, which is supported by P30 CA68485. The OBCS was supported by research grants from the Finnish Cancer Foundation, the Academy of Finland (grant number 250083, 122715, and Center of Excellence grant number 251314), the Finnish Cancer Foundation, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, the University of Oulu, the University of Oulu Support Foundation, and the special Governmental EVO funds for Oulu University Hospital-based research activities. The Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry (NC-BCFR) and Ontario Familial Breast Cancer Registry (OFBCR) were supported by grants U01CA164920 and U01CA167551 from the U.S. National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. The content of this manuscript does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Cancer Institute or any of the collaborating centers in the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) or the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government or the BCFR or CCFR. The ORIGO study was supported by the Dutch Cancer Society (RUL 1997-1505) and the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL CP16). The PBCS was funded by Intramural Research Funds of the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, USA. The SASBAC study was supported by funding from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research of Singapore (A*STAR.); the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH); and the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. The SBCGS was supported primarily by NIH grants R01CA64277, R01CA148667, UMCA182910, and R37CA70867. Biological sample preparation was conducted by the Survey and Biospecimen Shared Resource, which is supported by P30 CA68485. The scientific development and funding of this project were, in part, supported by the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre and Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank. SEARCH is funded by Cancer Research UK (C490/A10124, C490/A16561] and supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Cambridge. The University of Cambridge has received salary support for PDPP from the NHS in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve. SECS was supported by the BRL (Basic Research Laboratory) program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012-0000347). SGBCC is funded by the National Research Foundation Singapore, NUS start-up grant, National University Cancer Institute Singapore (NCIS) Centre Grant, Breast Cancer Prevention Programme, Asian Breast Cancer Research Fund, and the NMRC Clinician Scientist Award (SI Category). Additional controls were recruited by the Singapore Consortium of Cohort Studies-Multi-ethnic cohort (SCCS-MEC), which was funded by the Biomedical Research Council, grant number 05/1/21/19/425. SKKDKFZS is supported by the DF.Z. The TWBCS is supported by the Taiwan Biobank project of the Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. The UKBGS is funded by Breast Cancer Now and the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), London. The ICR acknowledges NHS funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre. UKBGS thanks Breast Cancer Now and the [, and the study participants, study staff, and the doctors, nurses and other health care providers and health information sources who have contributed to the study. We acknowledge NHS funding to the Royal Marsden/ICR NH.R Biomedical Research Centre. We acknowledge funding to the Manchester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (IS-BRC-1215-20007).
|Academy of Finland Grant Number:||
122715 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
251314 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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