University of Oulu

Tero Luukkonen, Mohammad Bhuyan, Anna-Maria Hokajärvi, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T. Miettinen, Water disinfection with geopolymer–bentonite composite foam containing silver nanoparticles, Materials Letters, Volume 311, 2022, 131636, ISSN 0167-577X,

Water disinfection with geopolymer–bentonite composite foam containing silver nanoparticles

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Author: Luukkonen, Tero1; Bhuyan, Mohammad2; Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria2;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Laboratory of Water Microbiology, Expert Microbiology Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, 70701 Kuopio, Finland
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-04-11


Geopolymers resemble conventional ceramics but can be manufactured at near-ambient temperatures. In this work, geopolymer–bentonite composite foam with silver nanoparticles was prepared and applied for water disinfection, inspired by point-of-use ceramic water filters. The inactivation efficiency against Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci bacteria was found to be promising (0.6–2.4 and 0.3–1.4 log₁₀ reductions, respectively) for ∼1 d. However, the inactivation efficiency against somatic coliphage viruses was poor (<0.05 log₁₀). The geopolymer matrix did not alter the chemical water quality. Thus, the pH and the concentrations of Ag, Si, Al, and Na remained in compliance with drinking water guideline values, and the foam showed no physical disintegration. These results provide preliminary proof of concept of the suitability of geopolymer foam composites for point-of-use water disinfection.

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Series: Materials letters
ISSN: 0167-577X
ISSN-E: 1873-4979
ISSN-L: 0167-577X
Volume: 311
Article number: 131636
DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2021.131636
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grants #315103, #326291) and the Center for Material Analysis at the University of Oulu (access to analytical instruments). Laboratorios Argenol is acknowledged for supplying materials. The graphical abstract was created with
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 315103
Detailed Information: 315103 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (