University of Oulu

Tavoosi, N., Hooshyaripor, F., Noori, R., Farokhnia, A., Maghrebi, M., Kløve, B., & Haghighi, A. T. (2022). Experimental-numerical simulation of soluble formations in reservoirs. Advances in Water Resources, 160, 104109.

Experimental-numerical simulation of soluble formations in reservoirs

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Author: Tavoosi, Negar1; Hooshyaripor, Farhad2; Noori, Roohollah3,4;
Organizations: 1Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Art, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 1684613114, Iran
5Department of Water Resources Study and Research, Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
6Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-12-23


Saline inflows and soluble geological formations outcropped in reservoirs contribute to reservoir water salinization (RWS). We set up 32 laboratory tests to better understand rock-water interaction and determination of dissolution rate of Gachsaran geological formation (GGF) in the Parsian dam that is currently under the study phase on the Fahlian river, Iran. Then, we used CE-QUAL-W2 (W2) to simulate GGF dissolution outcropped in some parts of the reservoir. Finally, possible solutions for mitigating the RWS were investigated using W2 driven under different scenarios: (1) having Hamze-beigi saline inflow (a main tributary of the Fahlian river) and GGF dissolution, (2) removing the saline inflow, (3) confining the GGF dissolution, and (4) driving W2 in severe floods. Although the dissolution rates (0.023–0.056 gr/cm²-day) salinize deep water, saline inflow degrades surface waters. Density gradient in the water depth formed the monimolimnion and mixolimnion separated by a distinct pycnocline in the reservoir. The pycnocline established in the early impoundment stage and lasted throughout the study period (2002–2012), leading to a crenogenic meromixis state in the reservoir. W2 driven under the 100–year and 1000–year inflows shows salinity up to 2700 mg/L in top layers from partial chemical mixing in the reservoir in cold months, although no conversion of the lake from the meromixis to holomictic state was observed in warm months. The findings suggest that, although diversion of the saline inflow satisfies the salinity requirement for hydropower generation, peak saline inflow can salinize the reservoir water and downstream river.

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Series: Advances in water resources
ISSN: 0309-1708
ISSN-E: 1872-9657
ISSN-L: 0309-1708
Volume: 160
Article number: 104109
DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2021.104109
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
Dataset Reference: Supplementary materials:
Copyright information: © 2022. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http:/