University of Oulu

Siponkoski, T., Nelo, M., Ilonen, N., Juuti, J., & Jantunen, H. (2022). High performance piezoelectric composite fabricated at ultra low temperature. Composites Part B: Engineering, 229, 109486.

High performance piezoelectric composite fabricated at ultra low temperature

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Author: Siponkoski, Tuomo1; Nelo, Mikko1; Ilonen, Niklas1;
Organizations: 1Microelectronics Research Unit, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-17


This work presents the next leap in piezoelectric all-ceramic composites fabricated at ultra low temperatures. The “Upside-down” composite method is further developed and instead of the water-soluble lithium molybdate used in our earlier study, an organotitanate based precursor gel is used as a binder. Utilizing heat and pressure the precursor transforms into titanium oxide which, together with lead zirconate titanate particles, forms a high-performance piezoelectric composite. The two-step fabrication method is based only on mixing and uniaxial hot-pressing sequences. The all-ceramic samples are fabricated at ultra low temperatures 275–350 °C with exceptionally high fractions of filler (filler to matrix 84:16 vol ratio) resulting in low porosity and showing excellent dielectric and piezoelectric properties. The charge coefficient d₃₃ ∼150 pC N−1 and the voltage coefficient, g₃₃ ∼52 mVm N−1 obtained with the developed composite outperforms many other known composites (80% and 70% higher than achieved with lithium molybdate bound upside-down composite, respectively) and are comparable even to some bulk piezoceramics and low permittivity polymer-ceramic piezocomposites. The sensor properties of the developed composite and the feasibility of the material from the application point of view are successfully demonstrated by utilizing sample elements in a charge mode acceleration sensor and sensitivities comparable to commercial devices are achieved.

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Series: Composites. Part B, Engineering
ISSN: 1359-8368
ISSN-E: 1879-1069
ISSN-L: 1359-8368
Volume: 229
Article number: 109486
DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109486
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) [grant numbers 291132, 812837]; the Printed Intelligence Infrastructure - PII (grant number 320017). The Center of Microscopy and Nanotechnology research unit of University of Oulu is acknowledged for electron microscopy services. The author T.S. gratefully acknowledges the Tauno Tönning, Walter Ahlström, Emil Aaltonen, KAUTE, Riitta and Jorma J. Takanen and Ulla Tuominen foundations as well as Infotech Oulu Doctoral Program for supporting this study.
EU Grant Number: (291132) ULTIMATE CERAMICS - Printed Electroceramics with Ultimate Compositions
(812837) FUNCOMP - Fabricating Functional Components in Room Temperature
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 320017
Detailed Information: 320017 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (