University of Oulu

Davide Bergna, Toni Varila, Henrik Romar, Ulla Lassi, Activated carbon from hydrolysis lignin: Effect of activation method on carbon properties, Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 159, 2022, 106387, ISSN 0961-9534,

Activated carbon from hydrolysis lignin : effect of activation method on carbon properties

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Author: Bergna, Davide1,2; Varila, Toni1,2; Romar, Henrik1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
2Unit of Applied Chemistry, University of Jyvaskyla, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, Talonpojankatu 2B, FI-67100, Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-04-25


This study presents the effects of different activation methods to produce activated carbon from the hydrolysis lignin. Pretreatment of the feedstock with common mineral acids (HCL, HNO₃, and H₃PO₄), different steam rates for physical activation, and different chemical activating agents (ZnCl₂, Na₂CO₃, and KOH) for chemical activation were investigated. The pretreated biomass was carbonized and activated in one-stage process and the surface characteristics, such as total pore volume, pore size distribution and specific surface area, were investigated. The results showed that the activated carbon surface properties were not greatly affected by acid pretreatment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas as high as 616 m²/g could be achieved with physical activation and 2054 m²/g with chemical activation. Different steam rates in the selected interval (0.5–2 cm³/min) did not change the pore size distribution but had small positive effect on the specific surface area, while chemical activation with ZnCl₂ increased the mesoporosity, and activation with KOH increased the microporosity and oxygen groups in the form of ether and alcohol bonds.

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Series: Biomass & bioenergy
ISSN: 0961-9534
ISSN-E: 1873-2909
ISSN-L: 0961-9534
Volume: 159
Article number: 106387
DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2022.106387
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This research was funded by European Regional Development Fund grant number A75548 Carbotech and by the Green Bioraff Solutions Project (EU/Interreg/Botnia-Atlantica, 20201508).
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (