University of Oulu

Svalina, A., Vuollo, V., Serlo, W. et al. Craniofacial characteristics and cosmetic satisfaction of patients with sagittal and metopic synostosis: a case–control study using 3D photogrammetric imaging. Childs Nerv Syst 38, 781–788 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05434-y

Craniofacial characteristics and cosmetic satisfaction of patients with sagittal and metopic synostosis : a case–control study using 3D photogrammetric imaging

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Author: Svalina, Anja1,2; Vuollo, Ville2,3; Serlo, Willy2,4,5;
Organizations: 1Department of Neurosurgery, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Faculty of Medicine, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Children and Adolescent, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
5PEDEGO Research Group, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Medicine, Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022042530259
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-20
Description:

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the craniofacial and aesthetic characteristics of adult metopic and sagittal craniosynostosis patients operated on in early childhood compared to controls. The goal was to find objective measurements that would correlate with the patient’s subjective self-evaluation of their own cosmetic appearance.

Methods:The study population consisted of 49 patients from whom 41 had premature fusion of the sagittal and in 8 of metopic suture. There were 65 age and gender matching controls from The Finish National Register. The 3D photogrammetric models were created from all patients and controls. The images were analysed using Rapidform 2006. Facial landmarks were set by the standard Farkas points. Facial symmetry parameters were calculated by using the landmarks and the mirror shell of the face. Aesthetic evaluation was done from standard photographs using panels. Subjective satisfaction with one’s own appearance was evaluated using questionnaires.

Results:Patients had the greatest asymmetry in the forehead area when compared to controls (symmetry percentage 59% versus 66%, p = 0.013). In the control group, the gap between the eyes was smaller than in the case group, resulting in an absolute 2 mm difference (p = 0.003). The area of the chin and the landmarks were more located on the left side in the patient group, resulting in up to a 1.1 mm difference between the groups (p = 0.003). Only a weak association was found between craniofacial symmetry and appearance evaluations.

Conclusions:Patients operated on because of sagittal and metopic synostoses were found to have facial asymmetry at long follow-up. However, the differences were < 3 mm and not clinically important. The long-term aesthetical outcome of the surgery performed because of sagittal or metopic craniosynostosis based on the 3D image evaluation was good.

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Series: Child's nervous system
ISSN: 0256-7040
ISSN-E: 1433-0350
ISSN-L: 0256-7040
Volume: 38
Issue: 4
Pages: 781 - 788
DOI: 10.1007/s00381-021-05434-y
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05434-y
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
3112 Neurosciences
Subjects:
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. This study has been financially supported by Stiftelsen Alma och K. A. Snellman Säätiö, Finland.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view acopy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
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