University of Oulu

Laukkanen, J., Takaluoma, E., Runtti, H. et al. In situ remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments with alkali-activated blast furnace slag granule amendment: A field experiment. J Soils Sediments 22, 1054–1067 (2022).

In situ remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments with alkali-activated blast furnace slag granule amendment : a field experiment

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Author: Laukkanen, Johanna1,2; Takaluoma, Esther3; Runtti, Hanna2;
Organizations: 1Kerttu Saalasti Institute, University of Oulu, Pajatie 5, 85500, Nivala, Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
3Kajaani University of Applied Sciences, Kuntokatu 5, 87100, Kajaani, Finland
4Geological Survey of Finland, 70211, Kuopio, Finland
5Freshwater Centre, Finnish Environmental Institute, 90014, Oulu, Finland
6Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-04-25


Purpose: Adsorbent amendment to contaminated sediments is one in situ remediation method to decrease the bioaccessibility of pollutants from the sediments. In this work, alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) granules were used in a field experiment at Lake Kivijärvi (Finland). The lake was heavily affected by a mining accident in 2012, which released a significant peak load of metals and sulfate. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of the novel amendment material for in situ remediation in real conditions with a preliminary cost estimation.

Methods: Alkali-activated BFS granules were prepared and characterized for composition, microstructure, and surface properties. Two mesocosms were placed in the lake: one with granule dosing and another without. Sediment and pore water samples were collected after a two-week period. Similar small-scale experiment was performed in laboratory with a three-month duration. Bioaccessibility of metals from sediments was assessed with a three-stage leaching procedure.

Results: The granules were effective in decreasing the mobility of Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr in all leaching stages by approximately 50–90% in comparison with unamended sediment in the mesocosm experiment. Laboratory-scale incubation experiments also indicated decreased release of Ba, Co, Ni, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn and S. The estimated material costs were lower than the removal of the contaminated sediments with dredging and off-site treatment.

Conclusion: The results showed preliminarily the effectiveness of alkaline-activated BFS in the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments in a field experiment. However, topics requiring further study are the leaching of trace elements from the material and impact on the sediment pH.

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Series: Journal of soils and sediments
ISSN: 1439-0108
ISSN-E: 1614-7480
ISSN-L: 1439-0108
Volume: 22
Pages: 1054 - 1067
DOI: 10.1007/s11368-022-03140-z
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
1172 Environmental sciences
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grants #315103 and #326291); the Finnish Cultural Foundation; The Central Ostrobothnia Regional Fund (grant #25171220); the European Union, European Regional Development Fund (projects WaterPro A74635, KAIVASU A75259, KaiHali A70827).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 315103
Detailed Information: 315103 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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